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Surface-anisotropy and training effects of exchange bias in nanoparticles with inverted ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic core-shell morphology
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10.1063/1.3611417
/content/aip/journal/jap/110/3/10.1063/1.3611417
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/3/10.1063/1.3611417
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic representation of the simulated antiferromagnetic (AFM) core/ferromagnetic (FM) shell nanoparticle. The nanoparticle is divided into five regions: the interior and surface of the AFM core (Region I and II), the interface between AFM core and FM shell (Region III), the FM shell and surface (Region IV and V). Dashed lines are used for separation from different regions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Exchange bias field, coercivity, and coercive fields of hysteresis loops as functions of ratio of surface anisotropy to ferromagnetic shell anisotropy at kBT = 0.01 JFM . HLEFT and HRIGHT represent the coercive fields at the descending and ascending branches of hysteresis loops, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Normalized magnetization curves of (a) hard ferromagnetic surface and (b) antiferromagnetic core surface as functions of magnetic field for different ratios of surface anisotropy to ferromagnetic shell anisotropy. MS ( FM Surface ) and MS ( AFM Core Surface ) represent the saturated magnetization values of the hard ferromagnetic surface and the antiferromagnetic core surface, respectively. The arrows along the curves represent the magnetizing directions, while the two-way arrows between two panels point out the positions where the corresponding switching fields exist.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Microscopic spin configurations of an equatorial cut of the particle with KSF /KFM  = 100 parallel to the field-cooling direction taken at selected values of fields along the descending HL and ascending HR branches close to the coercive fields at kBT = 0.01 JFM after field cooling. The spin distributions from the interior to the outer nanoparticle belongs to the interior and surface of the antiferromagnetic core, the ferromagnetic shell, and surface, respectively. The long arrows represent the rotation directions of the ferromagnetic spins. The circles and short arrows represent the nucleation sites and their movement directions.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Microscopic spin configurations of an equatorial cut of the particle with KSF/KFM  = 70 parallel to the field-cooling direction taken at selected values of fields along the descending HL and ascending HR branches close to the coercive fields at kBT = 0.01 JFM after field cooling. The spin distributions from the interior to the outer nanoparticle belongs to the interior and surface of the antiferromagnetic core, the ferromagnetic shell, and surface, respectively. The long arrows represent the rotation directions of the ferromagnetic spins.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Consecutive hysteresis loops of the nanoparticles with KSF/KFM  = 100 for (a) θ = 0° and (b) θ = 20° at kBT = 0.01 JFM after field cooling, where θ represents the angle between antiferromagnetic easy axis and magnetic field. The 1st (square symbol), 2nd (circular symbol), and 10th (triangular symbol) hysteresis loops are shown. MS represents the saturated magnetization value. (c) Exchange bias field as a function of loop index extracted from the individual hysteresis loop. Spheres are the simulation data, and lines represent the results obtained from Eq. (4).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Normalized consecutive magnetization of the AFM core surface for (a) θ = 0° and (b) θ = 20° at kBT = 0.01 JFM after field cooling, where θ represents the angle between antiferromagnetic easy axis and magnetic field. MS ( AFM Core Sur face ) represents the saturated magnetization value of the antiferromagnetic core surface.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/110/3/10.1063/1.3611417
2011-08-05
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Surface-anisotropy and training effects of exchange bias in nanoparticles with inverted ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic core-shell morphology
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/3/10.1063/1.3611417
10.1063/1.3611417
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