(Color online) (a) Fowler-Nordheim plot of the EFE property of UNCD film for (1) as deposited, (2) nitrogen ion implanted, (3) nitrogen ion implanted and post-annealed UNCD films. The inset shows the corresponding J-E curves.
(Color online) Raman spectra from (a) as prepared, (b) N ion implanted, and (c) post-implantation annealed UNCD samples taken with 514.5 nm.
(Color online) C1s XPS spectra from (a) as prepared, (b) N ion implanted, and (c) post-implantation annealed UNCD samples.
(Color online) The low magnification bright field micrographs with the inset showing the SAED pattern for (a) as-deposited, (b) N-ion implanted, and (c) post-implantation annealed UNCD films. The inset ii in (a) is the structure image of the as-deposited films.
TEM structure image of the (a) small grain region and (b) large grain region of N ion implanted UNCD films.
The (a) bright field image of the post-implantation annealed UNCD films, which were N ion implanted with a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2 and annealed at 600°C for 30 min; (b) and ( c) the structure images of the large grain region (b) and small grain regions (c). The insets FT1 and FT2 are the FT-images of the upper and lower part of large grains region in (b), whereas inset FT3 is the FT-image of the smaller grain region in (c).
(Color online) (a) UHV STM picture of as-prepared UNCD sputter cleaned with Ar ions, (b) STS taken in CITS mode showing the current map and (c) normalized differential conductance, , at the grain and grain boundary.
(Color online) (a) UHV STM image of UNCD after N ion implantation with a fluence of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 showing globular clusters; (b) high resolution UHV STM image of the same film showing UNCD grains of 2–5 nm size and grain boundaries; (c) and (d) STS taken in CITS mode showing (c) the current map and (d) map at a negative bias of 3.255 V in N ion implanted UNCD.
(Color online) (a) UHV STM picture of post-implantation annealed UNCD and (b) STS taken in CITS mode showing the current map (c) high resolution UHV STM image from a region in (a) and its corresponding CITS image (d) showing the current map.
(Color online) I-V curves at the grain (i) and grain boundary (ii) of N ion implanted UNCD films [marked as “3” and “4” in the high resolution UHV STM image, Fig. 8(b)] and at the grain (iii) and grain boundary (iv) of UNCD films after post-implantation annealing [marked as “5” and “6” in the high resolution UHV STM image, Fig. 9(b)]. In each region, 10 numbers of I-V curves have been shown.
(Color online) (a) Normalized differential conductance ) at the (i) grain and (ii) grain boundaries of N implanted UNCD, (b) at (iii) grain and (iv) grain boundaries after post-implantation annealing. Each spectrum is averaged over 10 scanned spectra shown in the Fig. 10.
Relative intensities of various components of C1s XPS spectra from as prepared, N-ion implanted and post-annealed UNCD samples.
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