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Effects of barrier composition and electroplating chemistry on adhesion and voiding in copper/dielectric diffusion barrier films
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10.1063/1.3624659
/content/aip/journal/jap/110/4/10.1063/1.3624659
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/4/10.1063/1.3624659

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic showing the Cu/barrier film stack that was studied. Failure occurred at the Cu/DDB interface for all adhesion measurements.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Average interface fracture energy and corresponding standard deviation measured at the Cu/DDB interface showing effects of Cu purity and barrier composition.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Representative SEM micrographs of the (a) SiN low purity and (b) SiN high purity #2 samples.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) The average areal density of voids plotted as a function of interface fracture energy for each sample. Plating chemistries are denoted by different data point shapes (low purity – circles, high purity #1 – triangles, and high purity #2 – squares).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) XPS spectra performed on both the (a) Cu and (b) SiN fracture surfaces showing segregation of S and Cl impurities at the Cu/SiN interface.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Interface fracture energy measured for each of the four different DDB (low purity Cu) samples plotted as a function of interfacial oxygen concentration.

Tables

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Table I.

Average in-film concentration of C, Cl, and S impurities as measured by SIMS depth profiling (Ref. 7).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Average number of stress-induced voids per 20 kX SEM image (∼ 200 μm2) in each sample.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Cl and S concentrations measured at the Cu and SiN fracture surfaces before and after sputtering away the interface region. Dashes signify that no peak was detected.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Interface oxygen concentration and dose measured for each DDB (low purity Cu) sample using SIMS.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Residual tensile stresses in the Cu film for all three SiN DDB samples as measured with XRD analysis.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/110/4/10.1063/1.3624659
2011-08-24
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effects of barrier composition and electroplating chemistry on adhesion and voiding in copper/dielectric diffusion barrier films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/4/10.1063/1.3624659
10.1063/1.3624659
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