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Low energy Xe milling for the quantitative profiling of active dopants by off-axis electron holography
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) SRIM simulations of the paths of different ions in Si. The angle of incidence from the normal to the surface is one degree for the Ga ions and five degrees for the Ar and Xe ions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Cross section of a Si specimen milled using 1.5 kV Xe ions. The amorphous surface layer is less than 1.2 nm. (b) corrected image of the sample viewed down the [110] zone axis clearly showing the silicon dumbell structure.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) SEM image of a Xe milled sample. (b) Region of interest of the Xe milled sample showing the locations of the three different specimen thicknesses. (c) For comparison a FIB prepared sample in the H-Bar Geometry.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) A phase image of a symmetrically doped 2 × 1018 cm−3 p-n junction. (b) Profiles extracted from across specimens of different thickness containing the p-n junction. (c) The step in phase measured across the junctions as a function of the crystalline specimen thickness measured by CBED for specimens with a dopant concentration of 2 × 1018 cm−3. The inactive thickness can be obtained from the x-intercept. (d) As (c) except for a dopant concentration of 2 × 1017 cm−3.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) The simulated range for different ions as a function of the inactive thickness measured for specimens with different dopant concentrations. The filled symbols are for specimens prepared using Ga ions, the half-filled symbol is for the specimen prepared using Si ions and the open symbol is for the specimen prepared using Au ions.


Generic image for table
Table I.

The simulated range of different ions with different energies in silicon for a glancing angle of incidence. The angles used were one degree to the specimen surface for Ga, Si and Au ions, and five degrees from the specimen surface for Ar and Xe. The experimentally measured inactive thickness for a p-n junction with a dopant concentration of 2 ×  is also shown. Some of the experimental data has been taken from elsewhere (Refs. 14 and 16). Where the value appears in brackets it has not been determined experimentally but has been inferred from Fig. 5. All of the values are shown in nanometers.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Low energy Xe milling for the quantitative profiling of active dopants by off-axis electron holography