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Relating charge transport and performance in single-layer graded-composition organic light-emitting devices
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10.1063/1.3653285
/content/aip/journal/jap/110/8/10.1063/1.3653285
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/8/10.1063/1.3653285

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Spatial composition (wt.%) for the hole-transporting material (HTM), electron-transporting material (ETM), and dopant over the device thickness for G-EMLs with HTM:ETM ratios of (a) 2:1, (b) 1:1, and (c) 1:2.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Electroluminescence spectra at a luminance of 1000 cd/m2 for optimized G-EML devices containing (a) 1:1 TCTA:BPhen with 2 wt.% Ir(ppy)3, (b) 1:1 TCTA:BPhen with 7 wt.% PQIr, and (c) 1:2 TCTA:TPBi with 4 wt.% FIrpic. Also shown is the dependence of η EQE and η P on current density for the same optimized G-EML structures containing (d) Ir(ppy)3, (e) PQIr, and (f) FIrpic. Vertical lines indicate operation at a luminance of 1000 cd/m2. Optimized Ir(ppy)3 - and PQIr-based devices have the structure: ITO (150 nm)/1:1 G-EML (100 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (75 nm). Optimized FIrpic-based devices have the structure: ITO (150 nm)/1:2 G-EML (100 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (75 nm).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Current density- and (b) luminance-voltage characteristics for the G-EML devices of Fig. 2.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

External quantum efficiency vs current density for each of the gradient profiles of Fig. 1 doped with either (a) 2 wt.% Ir(ppy)3 or (b) 7 wt.% PQIr.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Current density-voltage characteristics for 100:0 TCTA:BPhen (squares), 50:50 TCTA:BPhen (diamonds), and 0:100 TCTA:BPhen (triangles) electron-only, (a) and (b), and hole-only, (c) and (d), single-carrier devices. Data for devices with 2 wt.% Ir(ppy)3 are shown in (a) and (c), while data for devices with 7 wt.% PQIr are shown in (b) and (d). Symbols are experimental data while solid lines are fits to Eqs. (1) and (2).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Electron (solid symbols) and hole (open symbols) mobility for mixed films as a function of the TCTA:BPhen composition ratio with (a) 2 wt.% Ir(ppy)3 at a field of 0.37 MV/cm and (b) 7 wt.% PQIr at a field of 0.44 MV/cm. The solid lines are guides to the eye.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

External quantum efficiency vs current density for FIrpic-based G-EML devices with varying overall HTM:ETM composition.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Current density-voltage characteristics for 100:0 TCTA:TPBi (squares), 50:50 TCTA:TPBi (diamonds), and 0:100 TCTA:TPBi (triangles) (a) electron-only and (b) hole-only single-carrier devices with 4 wt.% FIrpic. Symbols represent measured data while solid lines are fits to Eqs. (1) and (2).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Electron (solid symbols) and hole (open symbols) mobility at a field of 0.30 MV/cm for mixed as a function of the TCTA:TPBi composition ratio with 4 wt.% FIrpic. The solid lines are guides to the eye.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Fit parameters for Ir(ppy)3-based single-carrier devices: Zero-field mobility (μ0) and field dependence parameter (γ) for electron and hole transport in mixed films as a function of the TCTA:BPhen ratio with 2 wt.% Ir(ppy)3.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Fit parameters for PQIr-based single-carrier devices: Zero-field mobility (μ0) and field dependence parameter (γ) for electron and hole transport in mixed films as a function of the TCTA:BPhen ratio with 7 wt.% PQIr.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Fit parameters for FIrpic-based single-carrier devices: Zero-field mobility (μ0) and field dependence parameter (γ) for electron and hole transport in mixed films as a function of the TCTA:TPBi ratio with 4 wt.% FIrpic.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/110/8/10.1063/1.3653285
2011-10-31
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Relating charge transport and performance in single-layer graded-composition organic light-emitting devices
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/8/10.1063/1.3653285
10.1063/1.3653285
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