AXES information depth as a function of the exit angle β, calculated for the Ga L3M4,5 emission line for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (cgi = 0.85 and ggi = 0.3) on the basis of Eq. ((3)). In agreement with our experiments, an excitation energy of E 0 = 1200 eV was assumed.
(Color online) Schematic of the multi-stage co-evaporation process, displaying elemental deposition rates and substrate temperature during film growth.
(Color online) Comparison of the AXES and SNMS data for the three investigated samples. (a)-(c): AXES peak intensity ratio I Cu(β)/I Ga(β) as a function of the exit angle β. The solid lines show model calculations based on Eq. ((1)) considering the copper and gallium concentration depth profiles (C Cu(x) and C Ga(x)) shown as black dashed lines in the SNMS data. (d)-(f): SNMS depth profiles (color coded) and depth profiles used for the AXES model calculations (black dashed lines at x < 500 nm). On the very right, zoomed cut-outs are shown.
Growth process details: substrate temperature T 2, duration of the 2nd and 3rd deposition stages (t 2, t 3), and the resulting integral copper and gallium contents (cgi int and ggi int) of the as-grown films as measured by x-ray fluorescence analysis.
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 device performance and photoactive band gap. The PV-parameters are averaged over a minimum of 21 devices. The devices are fabricated with absorbers from the same deposition run as those absorbers investigated above. is determined via derivation of the EQE.
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