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Gallium gradients in chalcopyrite thin films: Depth profile analyses of films grown at different temperatures
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

AXES information depth as a function of the exit angle β, calculated for the Ga L3M4,5 emission line for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (cgi = 0.85 and ggi = 0.3) on the basis of Eq. ((3)). In agreement with our experiments, an excitation energy of E 0 = 1200 eV was assumed.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Schematic of the multi-stage co-evaporation process, displaying elemental deposition rates and substrate temperature during film growth.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Comparison of the AXES and SNMS data for the three investigated samples. (a)-(c): AXES peak intensity ratio I Cu(β)/I Ga(β) as a function of the exit angle β. The solid lines show model calculations based on Eq. ((1)) considering the copper and gallium concentration depth profiles (C Cu(x) and C Ga(x)) shown as black dashed lines in the SNMS data. (d)-(f): SNMS depth profiles (color coded) and depth profiles used for the AXES model calculations (black dashed lines at x < 500 nm). On the very right, zoomed cut-outs are shown.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Growth process details: substrate temperature T 2, duration of the 2nd and 3rd deposition stages (t 2, t 3), and the resulting integral copper and gallium contents (cgi int and ggi int) of the as-grown films as measured by x-ray fluorescence analysis.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 device performance and photoactive band gap. The PV-parameters are averaged over a minimum of 21 devices. The devices are fabricated with absorbers from the same deposition run as those absorbers investigated above. is determined via derivation of the EQE.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Gallium gradients in chalcopyrite thin films: Depth profile analyses of films grown at different temperatures