Room temperature x-ray diffraction pattern of as deposited, laser irradiated and oxygen annealed NiO thin films on the sapphire (0001) substrate.
X-ray ϕ-scan of (200) and (1–102) reflection of NiO and Al2O3, respectively.
(Color online) (a) Selected area diffraction pattern of the interface of NiO on  α-Al2O3. Two different line pattern indicates the two sets of fcc spots from the same zone of NiO . The two patterns are mirror image of each other about the (111) plane. (b) and (c) Dark field images of NiO on  α-Al2O3 obtained by selecting neighboring spots from two individual sets of fcc pattern. The images depict the contrast reversal of the same region by the reflection of the neighboring spots.
High resolution TEM image of laser irradiated NiO showing highly epitaxial film on sapphire with (a) an atomically sharp interface and (b) the outer surface region of the thin film cross section. No nickel metal clusters were observed.
(Color online) UV-vis transmission spectra of as deposited, laser irradiated, and oxygen annealed NiO thin films.
Ni 2p XPS spectra of NiO for as deposited (a,d), laser irradiated (c,f), and annealed samples at 300 °C (b) and 700 °C (e) for 5 min.
O 1s XPS spectra of NiO for as deposited, laser irradiated and annealed samples at (a) 300 °C annealing temperature, (b) 700 °C annealing temperature.
Depth profile of Ni0/ (Ni0 + Ni2+ + Ni3+) ratio in NiO thin films.
EELS spectra of laser irradiated NiO thin film.
Temperature dependent resistivity measurement of laser irradiated NiO thin film.
Summary of electrical properties of as deposited, laser irradiated, and annealed films. The fields are left blank where the measurement values were beyond our instruments measuring capability.
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