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Layer confinement effect on charge migration in polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) multilayered films
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic showing the charge density distribution, ρ, of a one-dimensional (1D) diffusion process in an insulating matrix.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparison of Sawada and Coelho7,20 diffusion models in a matrix with ɛ′matrix = 11, ɛ″matrix = 0.5, and n = 8 × 1018 ions/m3. Parameters used: (a) D = 9 × 10 −12 m2/s, d = 375 nm and (b) D = 9 × 10−12 m2/s, d = 3750nm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

A plot of F(R) versus R where F(R) consists of all the factors in the Sawada loss equation7 that contain the variable R.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Equivalent circuit of PC/P(VDF-HFP) layered films. Layered film can be modeled as equivalent to an ideal PC capacitor in series with a lossy P(VDF-HFP) capacitor.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Dielectric storage and loss permittivity as a function of frequency for P(VDF-HFP) (14 and 7 μm film thickness) and PC (14 μm film thickness) controls. (a) Storage permittivity at 25 °C, (b) storage permittivity at 100 °C, (c) loss permittivity at 25 °C, and (d) loss permittivity at 100 °C.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Effect of a dc bias voltage on the dielectric loss of a P(VDF-HFP) 14 μm control at 100 °C. (b) Loss dielectric spectroscopy as a function of frequency for a 14 μm P(VDF-HFP) control at 100 °C initial measurement (blue circle), after applying a 100 V bias for 72 h (light orange circle), and 2 h after further annealing at 100 °C (green triangle). The dc conductivity contribution to the loss permittivity is plotted as the black line in the plot.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Loss permittivity as a function of frequency for the 50/50 PC/P(VDF-HFP) multilayered films with different layer thicknesses at 100 °C. As a consequence of the PC blocking electrodes, the magnitude of the layered films is much smaller than the P(VDF-HFP) control.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Loss permittivity as a function of frequency for a 32-layer 50/50 PC/P(VDF-HFP) film with 430 nm layers at 100 °C (green triangle) and the extracted P(VDF-HFP) component (red diamond).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Dielectric loss of extracted P(VDF-HFP) data (blue diamond) as compared to the fitted Sawada model (green circle) at 100 °C. (a) 7200 nm P(VDF-HFP) layers from 2 L film and the 7000 nm P(VDF-HFP) control, (b) 430 nm P(VDF-HFP) layers from 32 L film, (c) 190 nm P(VDF-HFP) layers from 32 L film, and (d) 50 nm P(VDF-HFP) layers from 256 L film.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Extrusion direction wide angle x-ray diffraction of (a) 7 μm thick P(VDF-HFP) control, (b) 2 L PC/P(VDF-HFP) with 7 μm layers, (c) 32 L PC/P(VDF-HFP) with 430 nm layers, and (d) 256 L PC/P(VDF-HFP) with 50 nm layers. Schematic in (e) shows the crystal orientations found in the layered films and control.


Generic image for table
Table I.

The diffusion coefficient, D, and ion concentration, n, in 50/50 PC/P(VDF-HFP) multilayered films and single layer controls. Values were obtained by fitting Sawada’s diffusion model to the experimental dielectric loss peak frequency, fpk, and amplitude, ɛpk, which was measured at 100 °C.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The crystallinity, melting temperature, and crystallization temperature of P(VDF-HFP) controls and 50/50 PC/P(VDF-HFP) layered films using DSC.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Layer confinement effect on charge migration in polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) multilayered films