Schematic of a typical cantilever deflection-displacement plot with highlights of the various stages (A-E) of the AFM tip as it is brought into and out of sample at a fixed point (adapted from Shahin et al., 2005).
Schematic illustration of adhesion between coated AFM tips and surfaces relevant to ceramic water filter.
ESEM images and EDX spectrum of (a) uncoated tip, (b) copper coated tip, (c) silver coated tip, (d) colloidal silver coated tip, and (e) ceramic coated tip.
Measurement of AFM tips radii using ESEM micrograph (scale bar of inserted figure is 100 nm). The metallic silver coated AFM tip shown has a tip radius of ∼87 nm.
Sample of 5 µm AFM tapping mode image of (a) porous clay ceramic and (b) E. coli surfaces.
Typical AFM force-displacement characteristics for copper coated tip and (a) porous ceramics and (b) E. coli bacteria.
Comparison of adhesion force obtained for (a) E. coli interactions and (b) porous ceramics interactions.
Adhesion energies obtained for (a) E. coli interactions and (b) porous clay ceramic interactions.
Average rms roughness values.
Spring constants of the bare and coated AFM tips.
Adhesion force between coated AFM tips and substrate for (a) E. coli bacteria interactions and (b) ceramic interactions.
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