Typical AFM images of Al deposited on (a) Si(111) and (b) Si(100). The RMS surface roughness of both (a) and (b) is ∼0.4 nm. Each plot is 4 × 4 μm and the gray scale corresponds to 0 to 4 nm height. Bottom panels are section analyses along the horizontal red line (of top panels), showing that the typical peak-to-valley values are <2 nm.
RMS surface roughness measured by AFM as a function of the deposition rate of Al on H-Si(111) surfaces. The line is a fit to a power law (see Eq. (2)).
SEM images of Al deposited on Si(111). (a) Thin Al film (∼45 nm) with RMS surface roughness of 0.6 nm. (b) Thick Al film (∼200 nm) with RMS surface roughness of 2.0 nm. Both films were deposited in high rates (∼20 nm/s).
Cross-section TEM image of Al film deposited on Si(111). (a) Wide view; (b) high magnification (scale bar is approximated); (c) selected area diffraction pattern with indicated directions. The thickness of the Al film is 30 nm, and that of the amorphous AlOx is 3 nm.
Representative x-ray diffraction pattern of UFTD Al film on Si(111). Diffraction peaks are labeled in the plot.
Current-voltage (J-V) curves measured across a self-assembled monolayer of C12 alkyl phosphonate on UFTD Al film on Si(111) with RMS roughness of 0.6 nm. Each gray curve was on a different junction and black line is logarithmic average. The total spread in current (max/min) is about a factor of 5. The inset shows schematically the measurement setup (not to scale). The current flow from the top Hg contact across the monolayer to the Al substrate and collected by the InGa “back” contact.
SEM images of FIB fabricated nano structures by directly milling a 50 nm thick Al film made by UFTD on quartz. (a) Holes of ∼200 nm diameter, taken at 52˚ tilt. (B) A 50 μm hole array of ∼100 nm diameter. (c) “bull’s eye” structure with about 1.5 μm circular grooves of ∼40 nm depth, with periodicity of about 150 nm, taken at 52° tilt.
Surface roughness before and after Al and Ag UFTD onto different substrates.
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