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Theoretical description of thermal lens spectrometry in micro space
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of a TLM system in micro space. Coordinates and sample and/or sample cell parameters are as given in (b) a two-dimensional sample model in a flowing medium, (c) a three-dimensional sample model with changing excitation beam radius inside the sample, (d) a three-layer sample model without sidewall and (e) a one-dimensional sample model considering the sidewall.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Beam radius distribution of a xenon lamp along optical path after a 20×/NA 0.40 long-working-distance objective lens used in this work.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Schematic diagram of a probe beam diffracted by a phase shift element in a rectangular coordinate system.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Influence of different flow velocities on the temperature distributions in the x direction for a 100 μm thick aqueous sample (α = 25.32 m−1, P = 0.01 W).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Influence of different flow velocities on the (a) RIC distributions in the x 2 direction, (b) z 1 dependence of TL signal, and (c) TL signal at a given z 1 = − 15z R.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Relative TL signal change as a function of the fluctuation of (a) the flow velocity relative to the central flow velocity v xr = 10 cm/s, and (b) the excitation-beam radius relative to the central beam radius a er = 2 μm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Temperature distributions for four flow velocities of the sample: v x = 1 mm/s, 2.5 mm/s, 5 mm/s, and 1 cm/s.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Temperature profiles in the sample at excitation beam radii of (a) 0.7 μm and (b) 1.4 μm, with f = 1 kHz, and l = 100 μm. Only one fourth of the profile is shown due to cylindrical symmetry.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) TL signal (a) at different sample lengths, and (b) in two microchannels of 100 μm and 300 μm and (c) in a 1 cm cuvette as a function of excitation beam radius.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) (a) Temperature profile and (b) TL signal at different sample lengths in a 5 mm cell under excitation of a top-hat beam of a e = 107 μm, f = 10 Hz.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Axial (z-axis) temperature rise of a 3-layer system under the top-hat beam excitation. Both l and a e are 100 μm and f is 20 Hz. The top/bottom layers are assumed to be adiabatic, n-octane and fused silica, respectively.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Frequency-dependent TL signals for 3-layer systems with 100 μm ferroin solution between the top and bottom layers, under laser excitation of (a) a e = 3 μm and top-hat beam excitation of (b) a e = 100 μm. l = 100 μm.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Ratio of TLS signals vs sample length for a system with n-octane as top and bottom layers with respect to a system with fused silica.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Temperature distributions in a cell for (a) different sidewall materials at 20 Hz, and for (b) a sample/stainless steel system at different frequencies. (c) TL signal as a function of frequency for different sample/sidewall combinations.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Thermo-physical properties of some materials.1,2 1


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Theoretical description of thermal lens spectrometry in micro space