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In situ study of the growth properties of Ni-rare earth silicides for interlayer and alloy systems on Si(100)
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10.1063/1.3681331
/content/aip/journal/jap/111/4/10.1063/1.3681331
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/4/10.1063/1.3681331

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Real-time XRD (a) and real-time RBS measurement (b) on an 85 nm thin Ni film deposited on Si(100) and capped with 3 nm Si. The elemental depth scales for Si, Ni, and Er are added to the real-time RBS figure for the sake of clarity.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Schematic summary of several important stages during the solid phase reaction of the Ni-RE interlayer and alloyed system as observed by real-time RBS and real-time XRD. The layer thicknesses and the temperature axis are not to scale.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Overview of the real-time XRD measurements performed during a ramped annealing at 1 °C/s on 75 nm thick Si-cap/Ni/Er/〈Si〉 interlayer structures containing 2.5 (a), 5 (b), and 10 (c) at. % Er relative to the Ni content. The corresponding real-time RBS measurements acquired during a ramped annealing at 2 °C/min are displayed in (d), (e), and (f), respectively. The elemental depth scales for Si, Ni, and Er are added for the sake of clarity in (d), (e), and (f).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) RBS spectra captured during the 2 °C/min ramped annealing of a 75 nm thick Si-cap/Ni/Er/〈Si〉 interlayer structure containing 10 at. % Er relative to the Ni content, acquired at room temperature (squares) and at 389 °C (circles). The elemental depth scales for Si, Ni, and Er are added for the sake of clarity.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Formation temperatures of the NiSi (circles), Ni2Si2Er (triangles), and NiSi2 (squares) phase as a function initial Er content in the 75 nm thick Si-cap/Ni/Er/〈Si〉 interlayer structure, as extracted from the real-time XRD measurements.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Overview on the SPR of a 2.5 at. % Gd or Dy interlayer structure (Si-cap/Ni/RE/〈Si〉) as probed during a 1 °C/s ramped real-time XRD measurement [(a) and (b) respectively] and using a 2 °C/min ramped real-time RBS measurement [(c) and (d) respectively)].

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Overview on the SPR of a 5 at. % Y interlayer structure (Si-cap/Ni/Y/〈Si〉) as probed during a 1 °C/s ramped real-time XRD measurement (a) and using a 2 °C/min ramped real-time RBS measurement (b).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Overview of the real-time XRD measurements during a 1 °C/s ramped annealing of the 2.5 and 5 at. % Er [(a) and (c)] and Dy [(b) and (d)] alloyed Ni films (Si-cap/Ni-RE/〈Si〉).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Overview of the real-time RBS measurements during a 2 °C/min ramped annealing of the 2.5 and 5 at. % Er [(a) and (c)] and Dy [(b) and (d)] alloyed Ni films (Si-cap/Ni-RE/〈Si〉).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) RBS spectra captured during the 2 °C/min ramped annealing of a 75 nm thick Si-cap/Ni-Er/〈Si〉 alloyed system containing 2.5 at. % Er relative to the Ni content, acquired at room temperature (squares) at 350 °C (circles) and at 480 °C (triangles).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Extraction of the Schottky barrier heights for a 35 nm thick pure Ni film, a 35 nm thick Ni-Er (5 at. %) alloy and a 35 nm thick Ni-Er (5 at. %) interlayer film on Si(100), all annealed at 500 °C until completion of the NiSi formation. The I-V curves were measured in four point probe mode at room temperature. The values obtained for the SBHs φe and ideality factors n are depicted in the inset.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

The EHF diagram and phase diagram for the Ni-Er system, indicating that NiEr formation would lead to the largest change in effective heat of formation. The binary phase diagram is taken from Ref. 34 .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Thickness evolution of the Ni silicide (squares) and Re-rich phase (circles) during an isothermal annealing at 380 °C, with the right-hand y-axis corresponding to the Si content in the Ni silicide (black curve). The thicknesses were obtained by artificial neural network analysis of the real-time RBS data on the Si-cap/Ni/Gd/〈Si〉 interlayer system containing 2.5 at. % Gd. The dashed line indicates the point where the RENi2 layer transforms into Ni2Si2RE.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Overview of the sample list. The notations “IL” and “AL” indicate whether interlayer or alloy structures of that specific composition were examined.

Generic image for table
Table II.

List of formation temperatures for the NiSi, NiSi2, and Ni2Si2RE phases as obtained from the real-time XRD measurements during a 1°C/s ramped annealing. The formation temperatures for the alloy systems are indicated with an asterisk (*).

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/content/aip/journal/jap/111/4/10.1063/1.3681331
2012-02-21
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: In situ study of the growth properties of Ni-rare earth silicides for interlayer and alloy systems on Si(100)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/4/10.1063/1.3681331
10.1063/1.3681331
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