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Charge generation, charge transport, and residual charge in the electrospinning of polymers: A review of issues and complications
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic diagram of a typical electrospinning experiment. Details of the charge injection and electrode configuration will be discussed in Sec. II. The various mechanisms of charge transport and current flow are discussed in Sec. III. Section IV details the residual charge on the electrospun fiber mat.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Current-voltage plot (log-log) for needle electrode. Initial linear region reflects Ohmic behavior. The sharp increase in current at about 8 kV indicates the onset of charge injection (adapted from Ref. 42).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Square root of current vs Voltage plot. Linear variation observed with slope dependent on separation of needle electrode from plate counter electrode (adapted from Ref. 42).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Point-plane electrospinning configuration (not to scale) with (a) an immersed needle-like electrode, and (b) conducting capillary electrode. In both figures, the charge motion near the electrode is diagrammatically indicated.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Multiple fluid jets using plane-plane electrode configuration without capillaries.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Distribution of the volume density of electric charges q 1. (1) space between electrodes; (2) layer of material; (3) collecting electrode.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Oscillograms of the discharge current at different points in time as a function of the accumulation of the fibrous layer (1) 10 s, (2) 30 s, (3) 2 min, (4) 5 min, (5) 10 min, (6) 20 min (from Filatov1).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Figurative representation of “trapped” changes (A,C…) and empty sites (B, D …) in an amorphous linear polymer.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Decay curve of residual charge stored in the polystyrene fiber mat. Note that the residual potential for negatively charged mats is negative. The magnitude of the potential is plotted for comparison of the two mats. Adapted from Ref. 79.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Time dependence of the surface potential of a corona charged electrospun PET sample upon storage.80

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Thermally stimulated relaxation spectra of PBT near melting.81

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Thermally stimulated relaxation current spectra of PBT near glass transition.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Effect of residual charges on the alignment of nanofiber assembly across gap.82

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Normalized ITPD measurements of aged polyetherimide aged at 200 °C at different times (Ref. 86).


Generic image for table
Table I.

Manufacturers that produce electrospinning devices and some features about their devices.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Charge generation, charge transport, and residual charge in the electrospinning of polymers: A review of issues and complications