Structure of multicavity RBWO with strong end reflections. Wave-beam interaction occurs in the SWS cavity. The radius of the annular cathode is r b = 19.5 mm.
Diode voltage in numerical simulation. The rise time and the drop time is 4.0 ns and 5.0 ns, which is close to the generation of the accelerator SINUS 881 used in our experiment.
Generation of RBWO in the free state. (a) Output electric field; (b) output frequency spectrum.
(Color online) Phase differences between external signal and RBWO generation when the power of the external signal and injection power ratio are (a) 100 kW, ρ = 0.02; (b) 225 kW, ρ = 0.03; and (c) 400 kW, ρ = 0.04, respectively.
Generation of RBWO primed by an external signal of 400 kW. (a) Output electric field; (b) output frequency spectrum.
Axial field E z at radial position of r = r b at 9.0 ns before the accelerator is triggered.
Phase space in RBWO at 5.0 ns after the accelerator is triggered. P z is the electron momentum and m 0 is the rest electron mass. (a) Primed by an external signal; (b) without priming.
(a) Power waveform of RBWO generation. (b) Power flux on injection channel. Positive power flux propagates from RBWO to isolator and negative one from isolator to RBWO.
Schematic diagram of experiment. Pulse duration of external signal is more than 500 ns and frequency is accurately 9.30 GHz. Its output power can be set to three discrete levels.
Waveform of the external signal recorded by directional coupler B.
Output waveform of RBWO picked up by the crystal detector in the radiation field. (a) RBWO working in free running; (b) RBWO primed by the external signal of 395 kW.
Waveforms of RBWO generation under priming effect and external signal. One horizontal grid represents time resolution of 2.0 ns. RBWO operates at the center frequency of (a) 9.30 GHz and (b) 9.32 GHz.
(Color online) Real-time phase difference between external signal and RBWO generation for four consecutive shots when power of external signal is (a) 395 kW (ρ = 0.044), (b) 271 kW (ρ = 0.037) and (c) 153 kW (ρ = 0.028). RBWO operates at the center frequency of 9.30 GHz.
(Color online) (a) Real-time phase difference between external signal and RBWO generation for four consecutive shots and (b) its close-up view from 15 ns to 20 ns under an external signal of 395 kW (ρ = 0.044).
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