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Wall-plug efficiency of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
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10.1063/1.3692392
/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692392
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692392

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Typical output power (P) vs driving current density (J) characteristic of a QC laser (black), and the corresponding wall-plug efficiency () as a function of driving current density (red).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Schematic energy levels of the model used in the paper. The wavy arrow indicates the optical transition.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Calculated leakage current density for the example structure with , and . A threshold current density of 2.0 kA/cm2 at 300 K, and a characteristic temperature , derived from experimental data, have been used in the calculation. It can be seen that the major contribution of the leakage current comes from level 4 in this example.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Calculated thermal backfilling current density as a function of temperature for the example structure, assuming a moderate doping concentration and a moderate extraction energy .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Calculated thermal backfilling current density as a function of extraction energy , for various doping concentrations at a temperature of T = 300 K.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Accurate solutions of (solid) and the values calculated with the approximate method (dashed), as a function of emission wavelength for various current dynamic ratio . The ratio r has been taken as 0.8 in this calculation.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Calculated values of facet efficiency (upper curve), current efficiency (straight line), and the product of both (lower curve) as a function of . and have been used in this example.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Optimized ratio as a function of the current dynamic-range ratio , for various leakage/thermal backfilling current density conditions.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Calculated total wall-plug efficiency at room-temperature (300 K) as a function of emission wavelength (lower solid curve). Also shown are the transition efficiency (upper solid), the voltage efficiency (dashed), the current efficiency (dotted), and the facet efficiency (dashed-dotted), as a function of emission wavelength. Experimental results taken from Refs. 3–8, 13, 22 are shown as open circles (pulsed mode) and solid circles (cw operation).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Calculated total wall-plug efficiency at low temperature (30 K) as a function of emission wavelength (lower solid curve). Also shown are the transition efficiency (upper solid), the voltage efficiency (dashed), the current efficiency (dotted), and the facet efficiency (dashed-dotted), as a function of emission wavelength. Experimental results taken from Refs. 9, 13, 27 are shown as open circles (pulsed mode) and solid circles (cw operation).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Calculated LO-phonon scattering lifetimes for the example QC laser with slightly-diagonal transition at 0 K (ps).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Calculated LO-phonon scattering lifetimes for the example QC laser with slightly-diagonal transition at 300 K (ps).

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/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692392
2012-03-12
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Wall-plug efficiency of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692392
10.1063/1.3692392
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