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Atom probe tomography characterisation of a laser diode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy
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10.1063/1.3692569
/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692569
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692569

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the nominal layer structure of the MBE-grown LD structure (not to scale). The layers contained within some or all of the APT data sets are shaded gray. Thicknesses or compositions marked with an asterisk “*” were measured by high-resolution X-ray diffraction; all other thicknesses or compositions are nominal values.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Reconstructed atom map of a region A data set from the MBE-grown LD structure, with 25% of indium atoms shown as black dots and 25% of aluminum atoms shown as gray dots (all other atoms omitted). The InGaN QW is near the middle of the data set, as indicated. The nominally 235 nm GaN layer used for reconstruction optimization is labeled, as are the other layers contained within the data set.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Mass spectrum of the atom map shown in Fig. 2, showing clear separation of all relevant peaks. The peak associated with the most abundant isotope of magnesium can be identified, in its singly charged state.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison between the observed distribution of indium within a QW from region A, and that expected from a random alloy, with 50 atom bins. No statistically significant deviation from randomness was observed. (In a χ2 analysis, a p value of 0.35 was calculated for the data shown.) Error bounds are an approximation of the standard error as √n, where n is the number of indium atoms collected.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The (a) upper and (b) lower interfaces of the QW, displayed with In isoconcentration surfaces of x = 0.04. The lower interface appears to be rougher than the upper interface, although both interfaces display some visible roughness.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) 1 D concentration profile showing the indium content of a region A data set. (b) Portion of the 1 D concentration profile indicated in (a) with a dashed line box. The indium content of the nominally 20 nm GaN layer is approximately x = 0.005. The approximate positions of the InGaN QW, the nominally 100 nm InGaN region, and the nominally 20 nm GaN layer are labeled in both (a) and (b).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison between observed and expected indium distributions for the nominally 100 nm InGaN layer from a region B data set, with 100 atom bins. No statistically significant deviation from randomness was observed. (In a χ2 analysis, a p value of 0.45 was calculated for the data shown.) Error bounds are an approximation of the standard error as √n, where n is the number of indium atoms collected.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Magnesium dopant level in the p-type layers from all four APT data sets of the LD structure. Error bounds are calculated from an approximation of the standard error as √n, where n is the number of magnesium atoms collected.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Aluminum content in the layer grown to be 5 nm of AlGaN, from all four APT data sets of the LD structure.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Average maximum indium content within the QW, for regions A and B of the LD structure.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Indium content within the layer intentionally grown as a 20 nm thick layer of GaN, in all four APT data sets of the LD structure.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692569
2012-03-06
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Atom probe tomography characterisation of a laser diode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/5/10.1063/1.3692569
10.1063/1.3692569
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