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A review and analysis of microwave absorption in polymer composites filled with carbonaceous particles
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336.The isolated C atom has a 1s22s22p2 configuration with filled 1s and 2s states and two electrons in the 2p state. Nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene are forms of sp2 C. Through sp2 hybridization of the atomic orbitals, two neighboring atoms can bond strongly via both s- and p-states. As a result of the high p-bonding energy, graphite is energetically slightly more stable than sp3-bonded diamond-like structures under ambient temperature and pressure. The ability of C to form a wide variety of anisotropic and stable 2D structures is in contrast to clusters of nearly all other elements, which are essentially always 3D. Graphene, consisting of single layers of sp2 C, is presently the most exciting form of C, ever since it was made by the mechanical exfoliation of graphite. Its unique band structure of mass-less fermions due to the Dirac cone structure, and the possibility of huge carrier mobilities with inhibited carrier scattering, has led to intense fundamental research activity with the hope that practical applications in fields ranging from electronics to energy science will emerge (Ref. 1). The gap-less band structure requires the two C atoms in the planar unit cell to be symmetry equivalent, unlike in the Bernal graphite structure. With advances in synthetic tools, a variety of elusive C allotropes such as 1D sp-carbyne, 2D sp-sp2-graphyne, and 3D sp-sp3-yne diamond, were also obtained or predicted (for review see, e.g., Refs. 2 and 3). It should also be noted that recently, an allotrope of C has been obtained by compressing graphite with pressure over 17 GPa, whose hardness is even higher than diamond, while its structure is unknown so far (Ref. 4).
337.There are three main approaches for introducing particle fillers into a polymer matrix. The first one is the mechanical mixing of the molten polymer phase with the particles. A second one is based on the in situ formation of the particles in the presence of the already formed polymer matrix. The third strategy consists in dispersing the particles in a monomer solution (precursor of the host matrix), which is then polymerized (Ref. 20). The effective utilization of particles in composite applications depends strongly on the ability to disperse the particles homogeneously throughout the matrix without destroying the integrity of the particles. Rational design of any device requires a fundamental understanding of the physical properties of these materials, and how they depend on the way in which filler particles and polymer chains are connected, filler-filler interactions, and the state of dispersion of filler particles. Modern technologies aim to tailor such properties for specific applications in the aforementioned industries enabling composites to be cost-effectively manufactured by injection molding or extrusion techniques. On the other hand, these materials have also proved to be model systems to examine the underlying molecular level underpinnings of the mesostructure and macroscopic properties of confined polymer systems. Essential to understanding these issues is a clear delineation of the intrinsic vs extrinsic properties of the filler particles. However, studies of interactions between polymer chains and filler particles are influenced by complex factors including particle size, surface area, aggregate structure and surface activity that have precluded the development of a first-principles understanding of particle-filled composite materials. For example, Obrzut and co-workers (Ref. 21) have shown that the blending of CNTs into polymer matrices leads to composite materials whose properties can depend strongly on the flow history to which the materials have been subjected.
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