(Color online) The scheme (a) and FEM mesh (b) of area with maximal heating at a chip/tool interface during cutting: (a) 1-chip, 2-cutting tool; (b) 1-carbide tool; 2-PVD coating; 3-chip (steel); 4-tribo-oxides.
(Color online) The temperature profiles (in K) and heat flux maps in the cemented carbide cutting tool (1) uncoated carbide without tribo-films formation; (2) tool with TiN-based coating with rutile tribo-films formation; (3) tool with TiAlN-based coating with alumina tribo-films formation; (4) and tool with TiAlSiN-based coating with mullite tribo-films on the friction surface (stable stage of wear, after 200 s of cutting).
(Color online) Tool life of TiAlCrSiYN-based mono- and multilayer coatings vs cutting speed: (a) 500 m/min; (b) 600 m/min; (c) 700 m/min.
(Color online) Phase and chemical composition of the worn surface (XPS data): 12 (a) Al-O tribo-films; (b) Ti-O tribo-films; (c) Cr-O tribo-films.
TEM image (cross-sectional views at various magnifications) of the worn coated ball-nose end mills with (a) TiAlCrSiYN mono-layered and (b) TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multi-layered coatings.
(Color online) TEM image of the worn tool with TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multilayer coating: FIB cross-sectional view with SAED pattern insets.
(Color online) High annular angular dark field (HAADF)-STEM image (a)-(b) and EDAX profile (c) of the worn TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN coating layer (see Fig. 6 ). EDX data was collected with the spot size of 1 nm and the step was 2-3 nm.
Zero loss HRTEM image with SAED pattern inset of the worn TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN coating layer (see Figs. 5 and 6 ): (a)-(b) 45 nm from the surface, no evidence of AlN hex; (c)-(d) 85 nm from the surface, small amount of the AlNhex phase.
(Color online) Partial fluorescence yield x-ray absorption spectra of N-K edge after annealing in-vacuum of the TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multilayer coating at various temperatures: c-TiN and h-AlN N-K edge standards are presented here for comparison purposes in order to show the evolution in thermal decomposition of the TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multilayer coating. Features A and B of the nitrogen signal are related to the first (most prominent peaks of the c-TiN and h-AlN correspondingly). The inset shows the tip of the worn ball nose tool which was cut and placed on top of a cupper holder in order to acquire the XANES signal.
(Color online) XRD data on TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multilayer coating before and after annealing at 600 and 700 °C correspondingly.
(Color online) Micro-mechanical properties of TiAlCrSiYN/TiAlCrN multilayer and TiAlCrSiYN monolayer coatings measured at room and elevated temperatures: (a) microhardness; (b) reduced elastic modulus; (c) H3/Er 2 ratio; (d) indentation curves at different temperatures.
Thermal properties of the coatings and tribo-films.
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