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Characterization of phosphorus-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEM images of the as-grown MWNTs: (a) and (b) Undoped tubes of approximately 100 μm length. (c) and (d) Corrugated and shorter phosphorus doped MWNTs prepared with 0.2 wt. % of triphenylphosphine.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) TEM image of P-MWNTs obtained by the pyrolysis of ferrocene and triphenylphosphine in toluene showing a carbon necklace morphology. (b) HRTEM image of the graphitic planes responsible for the morphology of the nanotubes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) X-ray diffraction pattern of (a) undoped MWNTs, (b)and (c) P-MWNTs at 0.2 and 0.3 wt. %, respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color) Chemical elemental mapping of P-MWNTs by STEM-EDS. (a) STEM-HAADF image showing the presence of nanoparticles trapped in the inner part of the P-MWNTs. (b) Chemical elemental map showing the presence of P in the particles, and (c), (d) chemical elemental maps showing the presence of Fe and O in the particles, respectively.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color) Raman spectra of MWNTs. (a) The I D /I G ratio for the doped tubes at 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.65 wt. % of triphenylphosphine. (b) G′ band of P-MWNTs obtained at a low laser power of 0.14 mW to avoid peak shifts by sample heating.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color) (a) XPS spectra of the phosphorus P 2p binding energy of the MWNTs produced at 0.3 wt. % of Ph3P. The inset shows the carbon C 1s binding energy of the same sample. (b) Deconvolution of the Fe 2p3/2 peak.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison between the XPS spectra corresponding to P-MWNTs, triphenilphosphine and metallic red phosphorus (P-red), showing the different phosphorus binding energy for phosphorus atoms in different chemical environment.


Generic image for table
Table I.

XPS data of substitutional phosphorus on P-MWNTs.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Characterization of phosphorus-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes