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Oxygen-diffusion limited metal combustions in Zr, Ti, and Fe foils: Time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction studies
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10.1063/1.3698318
/content/aip/journal/jap/111/6/10.1063/1.3698318
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/6/10.1063/1.3698318

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The experimental setup of time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction to probe the structural and chemical changes of thin metal foils in combustion reaction initiated by electrical pulse heating. The setup utilizes an intense monochromatic x-rays from the APS, a 2D pixel array x-ray detector (PILATUS), and a custom-designed fast-rotating chopper. The lower left images depict the microscopic views of the Zr sample configuration (left) and during combustion (right).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Time-resolved temperatures of Zr foil in combustion initiated by an electrical pulse heating, plotted together with the trigger pulse (in blue) and the voltage change (green) of the sample. For comparison, the melting temperatures of Zr and ZrO2 are indicated by horizontal dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Static (a), (e) and dynamic (b)–(d) powder x-ray diffraction probing the phase and chemical changes during Zr combustion in air. These TARXD images were obtained with time-resolution of 45 μs for each 3 ms long combustion periods. The yellow straight lines in (b) signify the onset of the pulsed heating (t 0) and the α-to-β Zr phase transition. The various oxides formed at different stages of combustion are indicated in (c)–(e).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The caked TARXD images of Fig. 3, as plotted in the Bragg angle 2θ in the x-axis vs azimuth (or time) in the y-axis. The diffraction lines are marked by short color bars at the top to characterize various phases. Also, see Fig. 5 for indexing.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Time-resolved powder x-ray diffraction patterns of Zr metals in combustion, obtained by integration of the caked TARXD images in Fig. 4 over a discrete time period noted in the figure. The simulated diffraction peaks are superimposed as marked by vertical color lines. The indices of each phase are also indicated.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A full-profile Rietveld refinement (in red) of the measured x-ray diffraction pattern (in x symbols) from Zr combustion products, plotted together with the difference spectrum (in green). The colored tick marks indicate the reflections of Zr and its oxides, as noted at the top of the figure.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The temperature evolution of Ti foil in combustion initiated by electrical pulse heating. The trigger pulse and the voltage change on the sample are plotted in blue and green, respectively. The melting points of Ti and TiO2 (rutile) are indicated by dashed horizontal lines. A sudden voltage jump is observed at the moment when the temperature exceeds Ti melting point and the sample becomes fractured.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Time- resolved powder x-ray diffraction patterns of Ti foil in combustion in air. The simulated diffraction peaks are superimposed as marked by vertical color lines. The indices of each phase are also indicated.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Time-resolved temperatures of Fe foil in combustion, initiated by electrical pulse heating. The left plots the close-up of the initial 1.1 ms period of the right in the entire time period of the present combustion experiment. The trigger pulse and the voltage change on the sample are shown in blue and green, respectively. The melting points of Fe and related oxides are indicated by dashed horizontal lines. At 0.975 ms when the temperature is beyond the Fe melting point, a sudden voltage jump is observed as a result of sample fracture as in Ti combustion.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Time-resolved x-ray diffraction patterns of Fe strip in combustion in air. The simulated diffraction peaks are superimposed as marked by vertical color lines. The indices of each phase are also indicated.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The specific volume expansion of Fe measured in the heating stage of combustion and plotted as a function of heating time. The transition temperatures are also noted in the figure for the α-γ and γ-δ phase transitions.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Crystal structures and lattice parameters of Zr and its oxides formed in combustion.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Crystal structures and lattice parameters of Ti and its oxides formed in combustion.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Crystal structures and lattice parameters of Fe and its oxides formed in combustion.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/111/6/10.1063/1.3698318
2012-03-29
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Oxygen-diffusion limited metal combustions in Zr, Ti, and Fe foils: Time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction studies
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/111/6/10.1063/1.3698318
10.1063/1.3698318
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