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Thermal poling of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses with intrinsically high dielectric breakdown strength
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of Maker fringe optical system. W: Partially reflective wedge; M: Mirror; ND: neutral density attenuation filter(s); LWP: long-wave pass filter; POL: polarizer; F: focusing lenses; SWP: short-wave pass filter; ANL: analyzer; BP: 532 nm bandpass; PMT: photomultiplier tube detector.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Prism coupler dispersion data for AF45 and OA-10 G, overlaid with Cauchy best fit and manufacturer’s specification data for comparison.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Maker fringe SHG pattern for poled alkali-free glass, comparing both measured data (·) and example of theoretical fit (). Inset: Sample pattern for y-cut quartz standard, used as reference for determination of relative 2nd-order nonlinear coefficient.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Example of data obtained in Stack Maker fringe analysis. (top) Normalized SHG intensity for stacked vs single samples of AF45 poled at 500 °C, 4 kV, 30 min.; (bottom) resultant layer thickness calculated as a function of absolute angle of incidence, with the average overlaid as a solid line.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Evolution of nonlinear coefficient, χ (2), and nonlinear layer depth, Ld, as a function of poling temperature for (a) AF45 and (b) OA-10 G.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Trends in breakdown strength and maximum internal poling field as a function of temperature. Also plotted are predictions of limiting Eb(T) behavior, per the theory of Vermeer35,46 (dash-dot lines), while the remaining lines are guides for the eye. Data obtained from18,37,47–49 and for poled silica, A50 and B.51


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Table I.

Magnitude of internal field, EDC, calculated from χ(2) via the rectification model, and contrasted with independent experimental data for the intrinsic breakdown strength of the glass.

Generic image for table
Table II.

XPS surface composition (mol%) of samples poled at optimal poling temperature at 4 kV for 30 min, compared to that of unpoled surfaces.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Thermal poling of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses with intrinsically high dielectric breakdown strength