Schematic model of film growth processes in polycrystalline films. Parallel layers in adjacent grains grow together to form new segments of grain boundary. The top of the grain boundary (triple junction) moves from (a) layer i at time t i to (b) layer i + 1 at time t i + 1 .
(a) Measurements in electrodeposited Ni (symbols) and model calculations (line) of steady state stress vs growth rate. (b) Calculations of stress vs growth rate using different values of the nominal diffusivity (0.2D, D, and 5.0D) as indicated in the figure.
(a) Measurements of the incremental stress during growth of Fe with different grain size (from Ref. 22). Solid line represents results of model calculation. (b) Model calculations of stress vs growth rate for different values of the grain size (L = 5, 10, and 20 nm).
(a) Wafer curvature measurements of stress-thickness in Ag films at growth temperatures of −80, −50, −35, −20, and 30 °C. (b) Model calculations of stress thickness evolution assuming islands with the geometry shown in Fig. 5(a). The calculations were done for values of the kinetic parameter τ equal to 1.35, 0.83, 0.61, 0.51 and 0.47 s as indicated on the figure.
(a) Schematic of geometric model for evolution of grain boundary height during coalescence of islands with circular cross-section. (b) Grain boundary velocity (normalized to average growth rate) calculated from model vs. thickness (normalized to grain size).
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