Schematic diagram of the experimental setup and diffraction geometry. The upper-right inset shows the three reflections scanned in the (HHL) scattering plane.
Temperature dependence of dielectric properties at 10 kHz of the unpoled and -poled 0.25PIN-0.44PMN-0.31PT single crystals.
Reciprocal space maps of (a), (b) (002), (c), (d) (112) and (e), (f) (−1−12) reflections for the (a), (c), (e) unpoled and (b), (d), (f) poled 0.25PIN-0.44PMN-0.31PT single crystals under 8 MPa stress at 25 °C. The Z colour scale is normalized neutron counts per second. The highest contour lines are highlighted with dots.
Selected reciprocal space maps of (a)–(d) (−1−12) and (e), (f) (112) reflections for the poled 0.25PIN-0.44PMN-0.31PT single crystals under stresses of (a) 30 MPa, (b), (e) 100 MPa, (c), (f) 300 MPa, and (d) 8 MPa upon unloading. The Z colour scale is normalized neutron counts per second. The highest contour lines are highlighted with dots.
Stress dependence of d (002) for the poled 0.25PIN-0.44PMN-0.31PT crystal at 25 °C. Inset shows ω-integrated diffraction spectra plotted against d value under stresses from 8 MPa to 400 MPa. The dashed lines show a two-segment linear fitting of the d (002) curve, and the dot line is drawn to guide eyes.
Stress dependence of d (002) for the poled and unpoled 0.25PIN-0.44PMN-0.31PT single crystals at 110 °C and 170 °C. Note that the unpoled crystal at 110 °C could experience an early crack before 400 MPa.
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