(a) AFM cantilever with an attached nanowire. (b) Sphere-above-plate geometry. (c) Corresponding situation for a AFM cantilever above a nanowire. (d) Sphere-above-cylinder geometry.
Force-distance relationships for a silicon cantilever above a substrate (thin line) with a Young’s modulus of and on a nanowire with a spring constant of (bold lines). An adhesion force of leads to a hysteresis in the latter case.
Simulated distance-dependent resonance curves on substrates with (a) a Young’s modulus of and (b) of .The adhesion force is .
Simulated distance-dependent resonance curves of a cantilever on a nanowire with spring constants (a) , (b) , and (c) at low adhesion of . (d) Resonance curves on a nanowire with for different adhesion forces.
(a) Intermittent-contact AFM image of tin oxide nanowires. Zooming in one finds artifacts according to Ref. 17. Line profiles were taken (b) along and (c) perpendicular to an individual nanowire. From the line profile in (b) one derives a 50° tilt of the wire to the surface normal. The SEM image in the inset of (a) has a matching scale.
Comparison of ((a) and (c)) experimental and ((b) and (d)) simulated distance-dependent resonance curves on tin oxide nanowires. The simulations were performed with a spring constant of and an adhesion force of (b) and (d) .
(a) SEM image of an array of silicon nanowires with a AFM image as inset ( wide). From the line profile (b) along a nanowire, it is concluded that the wire is tilted by 70° from the normal direction. The line profile (c) was recorded perpendicular to a nanowire.
Comparison of distance-dependent resonance curves on a silicon nanowire. (a) Experimental curves with an estimated effective spring constant of and (b) simulated curves with a spring constant of and an adhesion force of .
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