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Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N2
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10.1063/1.4733692
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/1/10.1063/1.4733692
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/1/10.1063/1.4733692
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Target current and target voltage waveforms for HiPIMS with different pulse energies and a pulse duration of 200 μs in a C/Ar discharge.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Target current and target voltage waveforms in dependence of the N2 content in the sputter gas for selected HiPIMS processes (for reasons of clarity, data relating to five different N2 contents are shown). The inset illustrates the peak target current (Î) with increasing N2 content in the sputter gas for the full experimental range.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a)–(f) Time-averaged IEDFs of (a) C+, (b) CN+, (c) C2N+, (d) Ar+, (e) N+, and (f) N2 + detected during mass spectrometry for the HiPIMS discharge of graphite in Ar and Ar/N2 atmosphere. The insets show a magnification of the low-energy region.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a)–(d) Comparison of HiPIMS and DCMS IEDFs for (a) C+, (b) Ar+, (c) N+, and (d) N2 + from time-averaged mass spectrometry measurements of a C discharge with 50% N2 in the sputter gas.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The relative percentage of the detected ion fluxes in dependence of the nitrogen content in the process gas for both sputter modes. Solid symbols represent the ion flux extracted for HiPIMS and open symbols correspond to the ion fluxes obtained for DCMS.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a)–(f). Total ion count rate vs delay time (corresponding to the onset of the pulse) for different nitrogen contents in the sputter gas. Each data point represents IEDFs recorded during 20 ms, integrated over the entire energy range for (a) Ar+, (b) N2 +, (c) C+, (d) N+, (e) CN+, and (f) C2N+.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Deposition rate (Rd) vs N2 content in the sputter gas for HiPIMS and DCMS; where RT—open symbols correspond to depositions at room temperature, LT—crossed symbols to 110 °C substrate temperature, and HT—filled symbols to 430 °C substrate temperature.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Corrected deposition rate (Rd) vs N2 content in the sputter gas for films deposited by HiPIMS and DCMS, at a substrate temperature of 430 °C and different N2 contents in the sputter gas.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a)–(d) Cross-sectional HRTEM images with corresponding SAED patterns of C and CNx thin films deposited by HiPIMS: (a) a-C, Ts = 110 °C, (b) CNx, 14% nitrogen in the sputter gas, Ts = 110 °C, (c) CNx, 14% nitrogen in the sputter gas, Ts = 430 °C, and a pulse energy (Ep) of 2.1 J, as well as (d)CNx, 14% nitrogen in the sputter gas, Ts = 430 °C, Ep = 4.5 J. The labels in the SAED pattern in panel (d) mark the positions of ∼1.15 Å and ∼2.1 Å diffuse rings. The arrow indicates the brightest segment of the ∼3.5 Å ring. The growth direction in the HR images and SAED shows upwards.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a)–(d) Cross-sectional HRTEM images with corresponding SAED pattern of C and CNx thin films deposited by DCMS with equivalent average power setting as films deposited by HiPIMS (cf. Figure 9 (a), (b), and (d)): (a)a-C, Ts = 110 °C, (b) CNx, 14% nitrogen in the sputter gas, Ts = 110 °C, (c) a-C, Ts = 430 °C, and (d) CNx, 14% nitrogen in the sputter gas, Ts = 430 °C. The labels in the SAED pattern in panel (d) mark the position of ∼1.15 Å and ∼2.1 Å diffuse rings. The arrow indicates the brightest segment of the ∼3.5 Å ring. The growth direction in the HR images and SAED shows upwards.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/1/10.1063/1.4733692
2012-07-09
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N2
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/1/10.1063/1.4733692
10.1063/1.4733692
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