Instruments for the detection and analysis of cosmic dust particles in space. (left) The impact ionization instrument LDEX. 6 (right) The CDA TOF mass spectrometer.11
The mass versus velocity ranges for the three common micro-particle accelerators.1
(above) Velocity mass distribution for iron particles. The distribution is constraint by the properties of the dust accelerator.15
Schematic drawing of the optical path.
Scheme of the BERTA time-of-flight mass spectrometer.
Design studies of two different reflectron TOF mass spectrometers. Left: LAMA with a target diameter of 60 cm (Courtesy of von Hoerner & Sulger). Right: SUDA with a target diameter of 20 cm.27
Change of TOF spectra characteristics with increasing laser energy for laser shots on an iron target. Shown are sum spectra for energy intervals of width from laser energies from to .
Line frequencies for the target material line 107Ag for Opx particle impacts onto Ag in dependence on the impact speed, the kinetic impact energy, and the energy density. For the dependency on the impact speed and the energy density, the data points could be fitted with a Fermi distribution. The error bars represent the Poisson distribution of the measurement.
Dependence in the impact parameters of the line widths of and 107Ag for impacts of iron particles onto silver.
Dependence in the impact parameters of the line widths of 23Na and 39K for impacts of iron particles onto silver.
Laser shots on iron: Width of the iron line.
(Above) Typical mass line shapes: resulting from an impact of an Fe-particle on Ag and laser ionization of a Fe-target. (Bottom) Asymmetry of the iron line in dependence on the impact velocity, the kinetic energy, and the energy density of impacting iron particles.
Dependence of the line asymmetry on the acceleration potential for impact velocities between and (12C, 16O, and ) and between and (23Na and 39K).
Overview of the measurements for particle impacts.
Manufacturer's specification for the laser.
Overview of the measurements for laser ionization.
Energy ranges used to compare impact ionization with laser ionization.
Hypervelocity impact: Empirical variability of spectra in narrow ranges of the impact velocity.
Laser ionization: Empirical variability of spectra in narrow ranges of the laser energy.
Selected ion lines for the investigation of the mass line shape.
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