A realizable equivalent circuit model of CSRRs-loaded CRLH metamaterial TL.
Fully printed layout of the CSRRs-loaded balanced CRLH cell, (a) overall view; (b) top- and bottom-view as well as its geometrical dimensions. The inter-digital fingers are etched on the conductor strip (depicted in blue), beneath which the CSRRs (depicted in black) are etched on the ground plane (depicted in grey). The elaborate geometrical parameters in millimeters (mm) are listed as follows: d1 = d2 = d3 = 0.2, d4 = d5 = 0.3, a = b = 4.8, c = 3.6, and w = 2.7.
Extracted circuit parameters for the CSRRs-loaded CRLH cell shown in Fig. 1.
Comparison of simulated S-parameters obtained from full-wave simulation and circuit simulation.
Effective (a) permittivity and permeability as well as (b) the dispersion diagram of the CSRRs-loaded CRLH cell.
Illustration of scanning law of the proposed 20-cells CSRRs-loaded backward-wave radiating metamaterial.
Simulated 3D polar far-field radiation pattern of the proposed 20-cells backward-wave radiating metamaterial at three different frequencies. (a) 4.1 GHz; (b) 4.5 GHz; (c) 4.7 GHz.
Fabricated prototype of the proposed backward radiating material.
Simulated and measured S-parameters and propagation constant of the backward radiating material. (a) S-parameters; (b) phase and attenuation constant.
Measured far-field E-plane radiation pattern of the proposed backward-wave radiating metamaterial. (a) 4.1 GHz; (b) 4.5 GHz; (c) 5.9 GHz.
The current distribution on the ground of the 20-cells CSRRs-loaded radiating material at 4.3 GHz.
Fully printed layout of the balanced resonant-type CRLH cells with fractal boundary of different iteration orders. (a) The first iteration order of ML-CSRRs1; (b) the second iteration order of ML-CSRRs2. The geometrical parameters (in mm) in the former case are as follows: d1 = d2 = d4 = d5 = 0.2, d3 = 0.3, a = b = 7.4, L = 5, p = 15, and w = 2.2, whereas they are (in mm): d1 = d2 = d3 = 0.3, a = 14.5, b = 16, L = 12, M = 14, p = 22, and w = 4 in the latter case.
Comparison of the simulated S-parameters and dispersion diagrams for the ML-CSRRs1 and ML-CSRRs2 loaded CRLH elements, respectively. The circuit elements are extracted as Ls = 5.34 nH, Cg = 0.82 pF, C = 2.50 pF, Cp = 5.33 pF, Lp = 0.825nH, and Rs = 0.9Ω at 3.4 GHz in the former case and are Ls = 10.05nH, Cg = 3.84 pF, C = 5.75 pF, Cp = 10.40 pF, Lp = 3.71nH, and Rs = 0.4 Ω at 1.25 GHz in the latter case.
Numerically calculated S-parameters of the proposed 20-cells radiating material loaded with ML-CSRRs1 and ML-CSRRs2, respectively.
Comparisons of the far-field radiation patterns at the selected frequencies corresponding to the LH, transition, and RH radiated region. The top row is the case of ML-CSRRs1, whereas the bottom row is the case of ML-CSRRs2.
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