IV curves for ITO layers subjected to various annealing conditions, where the ITO was subjected to rapid thermal annealing at (B) 200 °C, (C) 250 °C, (D) 300 °C as well as no annealing (A). The graphs depict the current response to 25 consecutive voltage sweeps from −5 to 5 V. At higher annealing temperatures, the variation in conduction over the 25 sweeps due to material degradation is evident.
A plot of the PEDOT:PSS sheet resistivity on a glass substrate obtained through I-V measurements on a linear TLM structure to remove the effects of the contact resistance. The distance between the Al contacts was varied from 650 to 3550 μm. Through a linear fit of the data, the reduction in sheet resistance with increased annealing temperature is evident. The inset is an illustration of the structure fabricated for analysis.
(A) Raman spectra of PEDOT:PSS film as-formed film. Key modes have been identified. (B) The Raman spectrum of PSS on a Si substrate. (C) Detailed Raman spectra of PEDOT:PSS film having undergone rapid thermal annealing at different temperatures ranging from 220 °C to 280 °C.
(A) Curve fitting analysis of relevant Cα = Cβ stretching vibrations. (B) Relative ratios of relevant integrated intensities of Cα = Cβ stretching vibrations from the annealing process in the range of 1100-1700 cm−1 in comparison to annealing temperature. With increased temperature, a significant change in peak ratio can be observed correlating to changes in the PEDOT:PSS structure.
Deconvolution of C 1s core level from the XPS analysis of PEDOT:PSS film on ITO (A) as-formed film. (B) 280 °C thermally annealed film.
Deconvolution of S 2p core level from the XPS analysis of PEDOT:PSS film on ITO (A) as-formed film. (B) 280 °C thermally annealed film.
Deconvolution of O 1 s core level from the XPS analysis of PEDOT:PSS film on ITO (A) as-formed film. (B) 280 °C thermally annealed film.
AFM tapping mode height images of PEDOT:PSS film on ITO (A)as-formed film. (B) 200 °C annealed and (C) 200 °C thermally annealed film.
4-pt probe measurements of the annealed PEDOT:PSS films on glass substrate.
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