Strain under unipolar electric cycling in BaTiO3 (a) below and (b) above the Curie point.
Temperature dependence of strain maximum under unipolar cycling at 4 kV mm−1.
Schematic graph for the determination of onset (Eo) and coercive (Ec) electric field (a) and the observed electrostriction coefficients Μ33 above TC (b).
Temperature dependences of the onset and coercive electric fields.
Strain-stress behavior of BaTiO3 as a function of temperature below (upper row) and above (lower row) the Curie point.
Remanent strain as a function of temperature during compressive mechanical loading.
Schematic graph for the determination of onset (σo) and coercive (σc) stress (a) and the characteristic stresses during compressive stress loading as a function of temperature (b).
Characteristic stresses during compressive stress loading above the Curie point.
(a) Landau free energy as a function of order parameter for different temperatures at E = 0; (b) the influence of an external field on the shape of the energy function above TC; (c) polarization-electric field relationship for TC < T < Tcritical (Refs. 33 and 50).
Comparison of ∂E 0 /∂T for field induced phase transitions.
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