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Strain mapping with nm-scale resolution for the silicon-on-insulator generation of semiconductor devices by advanced electron microscopy
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10.1063/1.4767925
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/12/10.1063/1.4767925
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/12/10.1063/1.4767925

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic for conventional off-axis electron holography and (b) for dark field electron holography. (c) The parallel electron probe used for the NBED experiments imaged on a (110) silicon specimen. (d) The profile of the electron probe. (e) The probe is scanned over the region of interest and (f) diffraction patterns are acquired from which the strain can be obtained by measuring the shifts of the spots relative to a reference pattern.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) An electron hologram of the calibration specimen grown on a conventional Si wafer. (b) Associated out of plane strain map, . (c) An electron hologram of the calibration specimen grown onto a SOI wafer (d) Associated out of plane strain map, . (e) A 8 k by 2 k HAADF STEM image of the SOI calibration specimen acquired with a field of view of 450 by 125 nm. (b) Associated out of plane strain map, .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) An experimental (red) profile and simulations (blue) of the strain in the calibration specimen grown on bulk. (b) Shows the strain as a function of the Ge content measured by dark holography and NBED compared to simulations. (c) Experimental strain profiles for the calibration specimen grown on SOI acquired by dark holography (red) and HAADF STEM (green) taken from the indicated regions in Figure 2 compared to finite element simulations (blue). (d) The strain as a function of the Ge content for the SOI calibration specimen measured by dark holography, NBED, and HAADF STEM compared to simulations.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) STEM image of a sSi/Si Ge 17-nm-gate pFET device device grown in SOI. (b) Map of the 17-nm-gate device for the in plane strain component, acquired by dark field holography. (c) A STEM image of the 17-nm-gate device and (d) 500 nm gate device acquired using the 6 nm diameter NBED probe. (e) Profiles for the in plane component, acquired from both dark field holography (dashed line) and NBED (solid line) suggesting that the SiGe gate is fully relaxed. (f) Strain profile for the 500-nm-gate device for the in plane strain component, showing that the device is relaxed at the edges and is compressed in the central regions.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) A strain map of a device with a gate length of 50 nm for the in plane component, calculated with a spatial resolution of 3 nm. (b) Profiles for the in plane component, taken from strain maps calculated with spatial resolutions of 5 nm, 3 nm, and 1 nm. (c) A strain map for the same device for the out of plane component, calculated with a spatial resolution of 3 nm. (d) Profiles for the out of plane component, taken from strain maps calculated with spatial resolutions of 5 nm, 3 nm, and 1 nm. Strain maps for the left hand side of a device with a 400 nm gate length for (e) and (f) calculated with a spatial resolution of 3 nm. (g) and (h) show the and strain maps for the left hand side of the device, respectively. (h) HAADF STEM strain profiles acquired from across the component strain maps shown in (e) and (g).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Strain map for the in plane component acquired using conventional Lorentz mode to provide a field of view of 360 nm and a spatial resolution of 6 nm (b) Corresponding NBED and dark holography strain profiles. (c) Strain map for the in plane component acquired using the objective lens in free lens control to provide a field of view of 100 nm and a spatial resolution of 1 nm. (d) Corresponding NBED and dark holography strain profiles.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The experimental measurements of the strain by dark holography, NBED, and HAADF STEM compared to finite element simulations for the different calibration samples.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/12/10.1063/1.4767925
2012-12-18
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Strain mapping with nm-scale resolution for the silicon-on-insulator generation of semiconductor devices by advanced electron microscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/12/10.1063/1.4767925
10.1063/1.4767925
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