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Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence characteristics by a rubbing-induced lying orientation of alpha-sexithiophene
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10.1063/1.4735402
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/2/10.1063/1.4735402
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/2/10.1063/1.4735402
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Chemical structures of organic molecules used in this study and schematic structures of (b) hole-only devices and (c) OLEDs.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Unpolarized absorption spectra of as-deposited and rubbed α-6T films measured with (a) normal and (b) oblique light incidence and (c) plots of spectral areas obtained with normal and oblique light incidence versus rubbing number. Inset shows change in absorption dichroic ratio as function of rubbing number when polarized absorption spectra are measured with normal light incidence.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

AFM images and their cross section profiles of (a) as-deposited, (b) 1 time, (c) 5 times, (d) 7 times, (e) 10 times, and (f) 15 times rubbed α-6T films.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Photoelectron yield spectra (electrons per incident photons) of 50 nm α-6T films on bare substrate surface and 15 times rubbed α-6T surface and (b) illustrations of proposed molecular orientations for as-deposited and rubbed α-6T films.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Current density-voltage characteristics and (b) plots of current densities at 0.1, 1, and 4 V as function of rubbing number for hole-only m-MTDATA devices. Inset shows energy-level diagram of hole-only m-MTDATA devices.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Current density-voltage characteristics and (b) plots of current densities at 0.1, 1, and 4 V as function of rubbing number for hole-only α-NPD devices. Inset shows energy-level diagram of hole-only α-NPD devices.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Current density-voltage characteristics and (b) plots of current densities at 0.1, 1, and 4 V as function of rubbing number for hole-only CBP devices. Inset shows energy-level diagram of hole-only CBP devices.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Current density-voltage characteristics [(a) linear-linear scale and (b) logarithmic-linear scale] and plots of (c) current densities at 3, 5, and 8V, (c) drive voltages at 1, 10, and 100 mA/cm2, (d) external quantum efficiency at 1, 10, and 100 mA/cm2, and (d) power conversion efficiency at 1, 10, and 100 mA/cm2 as function of rubbing number for unrubbed and rubbed OLEDs.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Luminance/initial luminance-time and (b) drive voltage-time characteristics and (c) plots of half lifetimes and voltage increase rates for unrubbed and rubbed OLEDs. Devices were operated under constant current density of 50 mA/cm2.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/2/10.1063/1.4735402
2012-07-17
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence characteristics by a rubbing-induced lying orientation of alpha-sexithiophene
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/2/10.1063/1.4735402
10.1063/1.4735402
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