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Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Sheet resistance, resistivity, (b) mobility, and carrier concentration of TITO films as a function of RTA temperature.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Temperature dependence of resistivity for (a) as-deposited and (b) optimized TITO anodes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Optical transmittance of TITO and ITO electrodes with the inset showing patterned TITO anode. (b) Work function of the TITO (4.71 eV) and ITO (4.90 eV) electrode obtained from UPS analysis.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

XPS core level spectra of (a) In 3d, (b) Ti 2p, (c) Sn 3d, and (d) O 1s obtained from the optimized TITO electrode.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) XRD plots and (b) surface AFM images ofthe multicomponent TITO and conventional ITO electrodes.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Cross-sectional TEM image of the TITO electrode and (b) enlarged HRTEM image of the TITO anode with the inset showing fast Fourier transformation pattern. (c) Enlarged HRTEM images obtained from the interface region between the TITO and glass substrate.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Schematic of the fabrication of the phosphorescent OLED on the patterned TITO anode. (b) Energy band diagram of the phosphorescent OLED with the TITO anode.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) J-V-L curve of the phosphorescent OLEDs fabricated on TITO and ITO anodes. (b) EQE and PE values obtained from the phosphorescent OLEDs fabricated on the TITO and ITO anodes with the inset showing green emission from the phosphorescent OLEDs.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Comparison of electrical, optical, and surface properties of TITO and ITO electrodes.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes