Sketch of the applied square-wave voltage to induce electron emission with a frequency f, a positive voltage pulse width T +, a negative voltage pulse width T −, and an amplitude U 0. During positive applied voltages the polarization is screened and during negative applied voltages the electrons are emitted.
Electron emission count rate recorded with a single electron detector as a function of the applied excitation voltage U 0. The emission starts at 110 V which is in close vicinity to the coercive voltage of 105 V in PMN-PT.
Electron emission count rate (black curve) and emission count rate per frequency (dashed red curve) as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage with a duty cycle of 50%.
Reversed polarization as a function of the positive voltage pulse width T + measured with a square-wave voltage pulse of 180 V amplitude. The solid red line shows the fit with a stretched power law following from random field theory for relaxors.
Electron emission counts as a function of time with a time resolution of 8 ms. The applied voltage characteristics are visible as a solid red line.
Dependence of the electron emission count rate per switching cycle on the duration of the negative (dashed red curve) and positive (black curve) applied voltages while the duration of the positive (dashed red curve) and negative (black curve) voltages is constant with 100 ms.
Dependence of the electron emission count rate per switching cycle on the duration of the positive applied voltage while the duration of the negative voltage is constant with 100 ms. Fit with stretched exponential function following from random field theory to describe the nucleation process.
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