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Plasma stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles on silicon for the growth of carbon nanotubes
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10.1063/1.4740468
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4740468
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4740468
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) and (b) are top-view SEM images of 1 nm Fe or Ni (respectively, deposited onto mono-Si and poly-Si) after NH3 PP for 5 min at 600 °C in 1 mbar of NH3 and dc plasma power of 20 W; inside are histograms showing lateral size distribution of nanoparticles. (c) and (d) are cross-section SEM images of CNTs (respectively, seeded by (a) and (b) nanoparticles) grown for 10 min in 20 mbar of C2H2 and same pretreatment temperature. Insets are HRTEM images of the tubes.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) and (b) are top-view SEM images of 1 nm Fe or Ni (respectively, deposited onto mono-Si and poly-Si) after NH3 TP for 5 min at 600 °C in 1 mbar of NH3; inside are histograms showing lateral size distribution of nanoparticles. (c) and (d) are top-view SEM images of CNTs (respectively, seeded by (a) and (b) nanoparticles) grown for 10 min in 20 mbar of C2H2 and same pretreatment temperature. Circles indicate nanoparticles at the tip of the tubes. Insets are HRTEM images of the tip of tubes. (e) Histograms of nanotube diameter grown on poly-Si/Ni system following PP or TP process (on Figures 1(d) and 2(d), respectively).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) and (b) are, respectively, XPS Si 2p and N 1s core level lines of mono-Si/Fe, poly-Si/Ni, and poly-Si/Co after deposition, TP, or PP at the conditions described in Figures 1 and 2. The black circles are experimental data, while the grey line corresponds to fit results. All levels are reproduced using a Shirley background (dotted line) and Gaussian components.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) to (c) are, respectively, XPS Fe 2p, Ni 2p 3/2, and Co 2p core level lines of mono-Si/Fe, poly-Si/Ni, and poly-Si/Co after deposition, TP, or PP at the conditions described in Figures 1 and 2. The black circles are experimental data, while the grey line corresponds to fit results. All levels are reproduced using a Shirley background (dotted line) and Gaussian components.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

XRD scans of as-deposited bare poly-Si and after NH3 PP (5 min at 600 °C in 1 mbar of NH3 and dc plasma power of 20 W) followed by nanotube CVD conditions (10 min in 20 mbar of C2H2 at same temperature).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) and (b) are cross-section SEM images of CNTs, respectively, seeded by Co and Ni nanoparticles formed on SixNy supports. The SixNy supports were formed on mono- and poly-Si following NH3 PP for 5 min at 600 °C in 1 mbar of NH3 and dc plasma power of 20 W. The nanoparticles were formed by NH3 TP at same conditions used for PP, except plasma off. The growth was carried out for 10 min in 20 mbar of C2H2 and same pretreatment temperature.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

AFM topography (500 nm × 500 nm, performed in tapping mode) of poly-Si-supported Ni nanoparticles (obtained by NH3 PP at conditions given in Figure 1) receiving post-treatment at 680 °C and 100 mbar of NH3 for 10 min (a) and 30 min (b). (c) and (d) are AFM images (recorded at same previous conditions) of poly-Si-supported Ni nanoparticles (obtained by NH3 TP at conditions given in Figure 2) receiving same post-treatment than (a) and (b).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Schematic representation of nanoparticle formation, nanotube growth, and catalyst deactivation for TP and PP processes. Zones (I) and (III) indicate poor or no growth due to no formation of particles or catalyst poisoning and are valid for TP and PP. Zone (II) represent the optimum conditions and is only valid for TP.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4740468
2012-08-01
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Plasma stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles on silicon for the growth of carbon nanotubes
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4740468
10.1063/1.4740468
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