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Incorporation of lead and titanium into a porous alumina membrane during Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanotube synthesis
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10.1063/1.4742979
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4742979
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4742979

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Images showing the process by which the PZT nanotubes were prepared: (a) preparation of as-prepared PAM and the PZT sol-gel solution, (b) deposited PZT nanotubes in a PAM, and (c) chemical etching of sample pieces in the etching solution. Images of the samples obtained at each step: (d) typical field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image of a pristine PAM, (e) typical FESEM image of a PAM containing PZT nanotubes in the pores, and (f) typical FETEM image of an individual PZT nanotube.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

FETEM images of PZT nanotubes, illustrating the changes in the wall thickness and outer diameter: (a)–(c) show images of the PZT nanotubes at 1 h, 3 h, and 15 h of etching time, respectively. (d) Wall thickness and outer diameter of the PZT nanotubes as a function of the etching time. The inset image shows a schematic diagram of the wall thickness and outer diameter.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

STEM analysis of the PZT nanotubes as a function of the etching time: (a), (c), and (e) show STEM images of the PZT nanotubes; (b), (d), and (f) show compositional line profiles scanned across the PZT nanotubes etched for 1 h, 3 h, and 15 h, respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The wt. % change in Al per (Pb + Zr + Ti) in the PZT nanotubes, as a function of the etching time: 1 h, 3 h, 7 h, and 15 h.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

HRTEM images showing the crystallites of perovskite (yellow circles), pyrochlore (white circles), and lead aluminate/aluminum titanate (red circles), as a function of the etching time: 1 h, 3 h, and 15 h.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Volume percentage changes of the perovskite, pyrochlore, and lead aluminate/aluminum titanate phases as a function of the etching time. (b) Schematic diagram showing the incorporation of Pb and Ti ions into the wall of a PAM.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

FETEM images of PZT nanotubes annealed at various temperatures: (a) 650 °C, (b) 700 °C, and (c) 750 °C. The inset images show the SAED patterns.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Change in the ratio Al/(Pb + Zr + Ti) as a function of the annealing temperature for an etching time of 3 h.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

HRTEM images of the PZT nanotubes showing nanocrystallites of perovskite (yellow circles), pyrochlore (white circles), and lead aluminate/aluminum titanate (red circles): (a) 700 °C and (b) 750 °C. (c)–(e) HRTEM images showing the nanocrystallite size and perovskite (110) d-spacings at various annealing temperatures.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

HRTEM and FFT images showing the (110) and (101) planes of the perovskite PZT and the (330), (421), and (511) planes of Pb2Al2O5: (a) and (b) annealing at 700 °C, (c) and (d) annealing at 750 °C. Perovskite PZT and Pb2Al2O5 are marked as yellow and red circles, respectively.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The (a) diameter, (b) volume, and (c) relative volume percentage of the perovskite PZT, pyrochlore PZT, and lead aluminate/aluminum titanate crystallites as a function of the annealing temperature.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Schematic diagram showing the diffusion of Pb and Ti ions, where Vo indicates the oxygen vacancies.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Lattice d-spacings obtained from SAED patterns as a function of the annealing temperature (650–750 °C), and their possible phases and planes.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4742979
2012-08-06
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Incorporation of lead and titanium into a porous alumina membrane during Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanotube synthesis
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/3/10.1063/1.4742979
10.1063/1.4742979
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