(a) MEIS energy spectra, model simulations and (b) depth profiles for 3 nm LLO/Si and ultra-thin TiN/3 nm LLO/Si as-deposited gate stacks.
(a) HRTEM image of 25 nm TiN/40 nm LLO/Si as-deposited gate stack. (b) and (c) ADF STEM images and EELS maps of Ti and O on two different cross-sections of ultra-thin TiN/3 nm LLO/Si as-deposited gate stack.
XPS Si2s core levels for 3 nm LaLuO3 before and after metal gate deposition (TiN or TiN-AlN) and FGA. As a reference, Si2s spectrum for 1.3 nm SiO2/Si is added. (b) Si2s AR-XPS spectra for 50 nm TiN/3 nm LLO gate stack after FGA.
(a) Current density versus voltage characteristic measured on bulk MOS capacitors with 3 and 6 nm nominal thickness of the LaLuO3. (b) EOT as a function of physical high-k thickness for as-deposited samples (squares) and samples treated by FGA (filled circles). Data extrapolated to zero physical thickness give EOT values of the interlayer, which are larger after FGA. (c) Current density at flatband voltage (VFB)–1 V vs. EOT for as-deposited and FGA-treated gate stacks. The black circles in (b) and (c) refer to data published in Ref. 14.
(a) Theoretical prediction of the dielectric transition between LaLuO3 and Si for 2.7 nm LLO/1.4 nm IL high-k gate stack and a silicate/SiOx-type interfacial layer (dashed curve). The solid curves represent conduction band edge and are calculated for oxide voltage drops of 1, 2, and 3 V. The offset values used are ΔEIL = 3.4 eV and ΔELLO = 2.2 eV. (b)Effective k and (c) capacitance as a function of total oxide thickness of the gate stack calculated according to Eqs. (3) and (4) and fitted to keff = 16 to derive the interface dielectric transition profile in (a).
Photoelectron line positions (in eV) for LaLuO3 and reference samples derived from this work and literature. Columns labelled (1) and (2) for La3d5/2 indicate the magnitude of spin-orbit splitting. The binding energy of the most intense peak in the La3d multiplet structure is given. δ is the energy difference between the two final states of La3d5/2 photoelectron lines.
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