Representative XRD pattern of ZL6, ZLN10, and ZLF10 NWs shows hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of doped ZnO. Inset: Relative shift of (100) peak with respect to ZL6 NWs signifies N/F is doped in ZnO lattice.
The variation of lattice parameters of Li-N/F co-doped ZnO unit cell with (a) N and (b) F concentration. Inset: Corresponding change in lattice volume (V) of doped Li-N/F co-doped ZnO.
FESEM images of ZLN10 NWs with (a) partially released, (b) fully released from the AAO template, and (c) an isolated single nanowire showing average diameter ∼40 nm. Inset of (a) shows the FESEM image of AAO template with average pore diameter ∼50 nm.
XPS spectra for (a) Zn 2p, (b) O 1s, (c) Li 1s, (d) N 1s, and (e) F 1s core level in Li-N/F co-doped ZnO representing chemical state of dopant ions as well as host ions.
Normalised room-temperature PL spectra of (a) Li-N and (b) Li-F co-doped ZnO NWs with respect to pristine ZnO NWs. (c) Representative multiple peak fitting for ZLN8 NWs and (d) the variation of NBE (E3) and green emission (E7) intensity of Li-N co-doped ZnO NWs with N doping concentration.
Room-temperature field dependent magnetization M (H) loop of (a) pristine, Li doped, Li-N co-doped ZnO NWs and (b) Li-F co-doped ZnO NWs.
High temperature M (T) measurements for (a) pristine ZnO, ZLN6, ZLN10, and ZLF4 NWs (inset). (b) Change in Curie temperature (T C) and corresponding saturation magnetization (M S) with N/F concentration for all the NWs. The side right to the dotted line (red) is for Li-N co-doped ZnO whereas the left for F-Li co-doped ZnO NWs.
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