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Investigation of the improved performance in a graphene/polycrystalline BiFeO3/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction: Experiment, modeling, and application
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic illustration of the fabrication processes. (a) Synthesis of BFO precursor. (b) Deposition of the BFO crystal onto the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. (c) Transfer of the PMMA isolation film onto the as-prepared BFO crystal. (d) Transfer of the multilayer graphene sheet onto the PMMA isolation window. (e) Deposition of the electrode contact. (f) A photograph of the as-packed graphene/BFO/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) SEM top view morphology of the as-deposited graphene film. (b) Raman spectrum of the as-grown graphene film. (c) Two-dimensional Raman intensity ratio (I 2D/I G) distribution in a 6 × 6 μm2 region. (d) UV-vis transmission spectrum of the as-prepared graphene sheet. (e) XRD patterns of the BFO crystal achieved in the experiment. (f) Measured Raman scattering spectrum and decomposed Raman active modes of the as-prepared BFO thin film.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Optical transmittance of the as-grown BFO crystal. (b) Optical absorption coefficient dependence on photon energy in the as-prepared BFO thin film. Schematic illustration of the graphene/BFO/Pt heterojunction band diagrams in the virgin state (c), under forward bias (d), and reverse bias (e). (f) Equivalent electrical model of the graphene/BFO/Pt heterojunction.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Measured and simulated dark/photo current density of the graphene/BFO/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction with external voltages of −1 to 1 V (a) and −3 to 3 V (b).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Photocurrent density variation vs. different incident light intensities (a). In situ conductive AFM (CAFM) measurement of micro photocurrent distribution when incident light varies from 0.8 AM (b), 0.9 AM (c), 1.0 AM (d), 1.2 AM (e) to 1.4 AM (f).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Photocurrent dependence on time in the graphene/BFO/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction, insets are zoomed-in versions for calculating (b) rise time and (c) fall time. Minority carrier lifetime mapping of the BFO crystal in a region of 1.5 × 2.5 cm2 (d) and the corresponding distribution histogram (e). (f) External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement of the graphene/BFO/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Photocurrent density variation with different HNO3 treatment times. (b) High resolution TEM image of CdSe QDs, exhibiting a random nanocrystallite distribution. (c) Photocurrent density variation before and after QDs filling/sensitizing. (d) Schematic illustration of the redox and electron transfer process with QDs filling/sensitizing.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Schematic test bench of photochromic film using the graphene/BFO/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction as a photosensitive detector. Transparency variation of the photochromic screen under dark (b) and illumination (c) conditions (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4748876.1]10.1063/1.4748876.1


Generic image for table
Table I.

Physical meanings of all the circuit components.



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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Investigation of the improved performance in a graphene/polycrystalline BiFeO3/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction: Experiment, modeling, and application