(a) XRD spectra of SCMO25 and SCMO60. Indexing is done in the orthorhombic setting of the Pnma space group. (b) Rietveld plot for SCMO60 sample. The experimental data points are indicated by open circles, the calculated and difference patterns are shown by solid lines. The Bragg positions of the reflections of the orthorhombic manganite are indicated by vertical lines below the pattern.
(a) High-resolution (phase contrast) transmission electron microscopy image and (b) energy dispersive spectrum of SCMO25 sample.
Temperature dependence of zero field cooled MZ FC (open symbols) and field cooled M FC (solid symbols) magnetization of SCMO25 and SCMO60 recorded in magnetic field H = 100 Oe, 1 kOe (a),(b), and 15 kOe (c),(d).
Temperature dependence of real (χ′) (a),(b) and imaginary (χ″) (c),(d) component of ac-susceptibility measured during heating at ac magnetic field of 10 Oe and different frequencies. Insets in (a) and (b): the inverse of the real part (χ′) of ac-susceptibility measured at 10 kHz. Dashed lines show fits to Curie-Weiss law. Insets to (c) and (d) show the inverse of the real part (χ′) of ac-susceptibility measured at 10 kHz and temperature dependence of H/M measured at 15 kOe.
(a),(b) Magnetic field dependences of magnetization of SCMO25 and SCMO60 at various temperatures, as measured after FC and ZFC procedures. Insets: zoom into low field part of hysteresis loops measured after FC and ZFC at T = 10 K. (c) Coercive field of SCMO samples as a function of the temperature.
Temperature dependence of H EB and M EB for LCMO25 (a) and LCMO60 (b) samples determined from hysteresis loops recorded within field range ±15 kOe after FC in 15 kOe. Solid lines in (a) are best fits of H EB = H EB(0)exp(−T/T 1) and M EB = M EB(0)exp(−T/T 3) for SCMO25, while the solid line in Fig. 6(b) represents fit of H EB = H EB(0)exp(−T/T 1).
(a),(b) Magnetic field dependences of magnetization for SCMO25 and SCMO60 at 10 K, measured in magnetic field range ±90 kOe after FC and ZFC. Insets: zoom at low field part of the hysteresis loops measured at T = 10 K after FC and ZFC. Spontaneous magnetization M S, evaluated by linear extrapolation to H = 0 of the high field magnetization recorded after ZFC, is equal to M S ≈ 4.95 emu/g = 0.136 μ B/f.u. for SCMO25 and to M S ≈ 16.47 emu/g = 0.454 μ B/f.u. for SCMO60.
(a) Variation of coercive field H C and the exchange bias field vs. H cool for SCMO25 at T = 10 K. (b) Magnetic coercivity M C and vertical shift M EB as a function of H cool for SCMO25 at T = 10 K.
The temperature variation of the remanent magnetization of SCMO25 (a) and SCMO60 (b) at ambient and applied pressure.
Field dependence of TRM and IRM for 25 nm LCMO NPs at 10 K.
(a) Temperature dependence of ZFC magnetization recorded in various magnetic field. (b, c) Fitting of Eqs. (5) and (6) to experimental points of temperature of the maximum in ZFC magnetization.
(a) Temperature dependence of the reference magnetization (open triangles) and of the magnetization with a stop and waiting protocol, (open squares) at a magnetic field H = 10 Oe. First, 25 nm SCMO sample was cooled from 300 K to 10 K with the rate of 3 K/min. Then the magnetization was measured during heating. After that, the system was cooled again from 300 K to a stop temperature T S. The system was annealed at a stop temperature T S = 40 K for the wait time 20 000 s. Next, the cooling was resumed and sample was cooled from T S to 10 K. At 10 K the magnetic field was turned on and the magnetization was measured at heating. (b) ΔM = − vs. temperature.
Schematic plot of the morphological structure of SCMO nanoparticle. D is the particle diameter, λ0 is the disordered layer thickness, λm is the magnetic disorder length, V sd is the structural disorder volume, and V mo is the magnetically ordered volume.
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