1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
f
Detection of low frequency hurricane emissions using a ring laser interferometer
Rent:
Rent this article for
Access full text Article
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/7/10.1063/1.4757037
1.
1. W. M. Macek, D. T. M. Davis, Jr., R. W. Olthius, J. R. Schneider, and G. R. White, “ Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” in Optical Lasers, edited by J. Fox (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, 1963), pp. 199207.
2.
2. W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banaclocke, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, “ The ring laser gyro,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61103 (1985).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.57.61
3.
3. G. E. Stedman, “ Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615688 (1997).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/60/6/001
4.
4. F. Aronowitz, “ The laser gyro,” in Laser Applications, Vol. 1, edited by M. Ross (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 133200.
5.
5. R. W. Dunn, “ Multimode ring laser lock-in,” Appl. Opt. 28, 25842587 (1989).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.28.002584
6.
6. K. U. Schreiber, J. N. Hautmann, A. Velikoseltsev, J. Wassermann, H. Igel, J. Otero, F. Vernon, and J. P. R. Wells, “ Ring laser measurements of ground rotations for seismology,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 99(2B ), 11901198 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120080171
7.
7. K. U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, and T. Klugel, “ Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(B ), 2132, doi:10.1029/2001JB000569 (2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000569
8.
8. K. U. Schreiber, A. Velikoseltsev, R. Rothacher, T. Klugel, G. E. Stedman, and D. L. Wiltshire, “ Direct measurements of diurnal polar motion by ring laser gyroscopes,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(B6 ), B06405, doi:10.1029/2003JB002803 (2004).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002803
9.
9. A. Pancha, T. Webb, G. Stedman, D. McLeod, and K. Schreiber, “ Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(21 ), 35533556, doi:10.1029/2000GL011734 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL011734
10.
10. H. Igel, K. U. Schreiber, A. Flaws, B. Schuberth, A. Velikoseltsev, and A. Cochard, “ Rotational motions induced by the M8.1 Tokachi-oki earthquake, September 25, 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L08309, doi:10.1029/2004GL022336 (2005).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022336
11.
11. R. W. Dunn, H. H. Mahdi, and H. J. Al-Shukri, “ Design of a relatively inexpensive ring laser seismic detector,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 99(2B ), 14371442, (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120080092
12.
12. A. J. Bedard and T. M. Georges, “ Atmospheric infrasound,” Phys. Today 53(3 ), 3237 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.883019
13.
13. L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 225227.
14.
14. F. G. Stremler, Introduction to Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1982), pp. 315326.
15.
15. P. Gerstoft, M. C. Fehler, and K. G. Sabra, “ When Katrina hit California,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17308, doi:10.1029/2006GL027270 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027270
16.
16. M. N. Toksoz and R. T. Lacoss, “ Microseisms: mode structure and sources,” Science 159(3817 ), 872873 (1968).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.159.3817.872
17.
17. R. D. Knabb, J. R. Rhome, and D. P. Brown, see http://www.nhc.noaa.gov for National Hurricane Center, 20 December 2005, archived data 2005, Hurricane Katrina.
18.
18. J. L. Franklin, see http://www.nhc.noaa.gov for National hurricane Center, 31 January 2008, archived data 2007, Hurricane Dean.
19.
19. R. J. Pasch, E. S. Blake, H. D. Cobb III, and D. P. Roberts, see http://www.nhc.noaa.gov. for National Hurricane Center, 12 January 2006, archived data 2005, Hurricane Wilma.
20.
20. W. L. Donn and E. Posmentier, in Proceedings of the 1968 ESSA/ARPA Symposium on Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere, edited by T. M. Georges (ESSA Research Laboratories Boulder CO), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1968), pp. 195208.
21.
21. J. D. Hawkins, M. Helveston, T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, K. Richardson, C. Sampson, J. Kent, and R. Wade, “ Tropical cyclone multiple eyewall configurations,” in 26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, July 19, 2006, Monterey, CA, Sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, http://ams.confex.com/ams/27Hurricanes/techprogram/paper_ 108864. htm.
22.
22. W. Zurn and R. Widmer, “ Worldwide observation of bichromatic long-period Rayleigh waves excited during the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo,” in Fire and mud eruptions and lahars Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S Geol. Surv. pubs. 2004), http://pubs.usgs.gov/pinatubo/zurn.
23.
23. J. Oswalt, W. Nichols, and J. F. O'Hara, “ Meteorological observations of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption,”in Fire and mud eruptions and lahars Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S.Geol. Surv. pubs. 2004), http://pubs.usgs.gov/pinatubo/oswalt.
24.
24. P. Lognonne, E. Clevede, and Hiroo Kanamori, “ Computation of seismograms and atmospheric oscillations by normal-mode summation for a spherical earth model with realistic atmosphere,” Geophys. J. Int. 135, 388406 (1998).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.1998.00665.x
25.
25. R. A. Bauer, W. Su, R. C. Counts, and M. D. Karaffa, “ Shear wave velocity, geology and geotechnical data of earth materials in the central U.S. urban hazards mapping areas,” USGC External Grant, http://earthquake.usgc/research/external/reports/06HQGR0192.
26.
26. C. A. Langston, “ Local earthquake propagation through Mississippi Embayment sediments, Part I: Body-wave phases and local site responses,” Bull Seismol. Soc. Am. 93(6 ), 26642684 (2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120030046
27.
27. H. E. Bass, L. N. Bolen, D. Cress, J. Lundien, and M. Flohr, “ Coupling of airborne sound into the earth: Frequency dependence,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67(5 ), 15021506 (1980).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.384312
28.
28. J. M. Sabatier, H. E. Bass, L. N. Bolen, and K. Attenborough, “ The interaction of airborne sound with the porous ground: the theoretical formulation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(5 ), 13451352 (1986).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.393662
29.
29. J. M. Sabatier, H. E. Bass, L. N. Bolen, and K. Attenborough, “ Acoustically induced seismic waves,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80(2 ), 646649 (1986).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.394058
30.
30. C. A. Langston, “ Seismic ground motions from a bolide shock wave,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, B12309, doi:10.1029/2004JB003167 (2004).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003167
31.
31. S. A. Elder, “ Acoustical origin of rainbands in an ideal tropical hurricane,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119(5 ), 26452650 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2181087
32.
32. M. E. Nicholls and R. A. Pielke Sr., “ Thermally induced compression waves and gravity waves generated by convective storms,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 32513271 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3251:TICWAG>2.0.CO;2
33.
33. D. Schecter, “ A method for diagnosing the sources of infrasound in convective storm simulations,” J. App. Meteor. Climatol. 50, 25262542 (2011).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-11-010.1
34.
34. A. J. Bedard, “ Low frequency atmospheric acoustic energy associated with vortices produced by thunderstorms,” Mon. Weather Rev. 133, 241263 (2005).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR-2851.1
35.
35. A. J. Abdullah, “ The musical sound emitted by a tornado,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 213220 (1966).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1966)094<0213:TMSEBA>2.3.CO;2
36.
36. D. Schecter, “ A brief critique of a theory used to interpret the infrasound of tornadic thunderstorms,” Mon. Weather Rev. 140, 20802089 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00194.1
37.
37.See http://rapidfire. sci. gsfc. nasa.gov/ for High Pressure Cloud Patterns, Eastern U.S.: Image of the Day, September 28, 2010.
38.
38. J. Rhie and B. Romanowicz, “ A study of the relation between ocean storms and the Earth's hum,” Geochem. Geophys. Geosyt. 7(10 ), 136, doi:10.1029/2006GC001274 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001274
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/7/10.1063/1.4757037
Loading
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.

Click to view

FIG. 1.

In an active ring laser interferometer, the plasma tube is inside the cavity. When the cavity is rotating, it takes longer for one beam to travel around the cavity than the other beam. The time difference equates to a frequency difference between the two counter-propagating beams. As a consequence, when small amounts of light transmitted through the dielectric mirrors are collimated and combined on a photodiode, a beat frequency proportional to the rotation rate of the cavity is observed.

Image of FIG. 2.

Click to view

FIG. 2.

A Helmholtz acoustic resonator was used to create infrasound signals at 12.5 Hz. When the acoustic resonator was placed in the same room as the ring laser, the 12.5 Hz acoustic signals frequency modulated the beat frequency of ∼574.5 Hz introduced by Earth's rotation. An FFT of the modulated signals shows the side bands at 12.5 Hz on either side of the beat frequency. The noise around the beat frequency at the center of the graph is thought to be due to machine room vibrations and students in the building.

Image of FIG. 3.

Click to view

FIG. 3.

A Helmholtz generator, emitting a 10.9 Hz signal frequency, modulates the carrier frequency (the beat frequency) introduced by earth's rotation in a square ring laser 5.6 m on a side. Two separate demodulation schemes were simultaneously employed. Graph 3(a) shows an FFT of the output of a phase locked loop FM demodulator. In graph 3(b), an FFT of the frequency counted data is shown. Aside from some low amplitude noise, only the 10.9 Hz sidebands appear. An examination of the figure shows the two approaches give equivalent results.

Image of FIG. 4.

Click to view

FIG. 4.

In late August of 2005, as Hurricane Katrina approached the coast of Louisiana, ground vibrations (microseisms) produced by waves crashing on the shore were detected by a large ring laser interferometer located in Conway, Arkansas. The frequencies of the microseisms that were detected by the ring laser are in general agreement with those detected by a 150 station seismic array in Southern California.15 Graph 4(a) was from microseisms on August 28, 2005 and graph 4b was from microseisms on August 29, 2005 as the storm was moving ashore.

Image of FIG. 5.

Click to view

FIG. 5.

A pronounced ∼7.3 mHz emission was detected from Hurricane Katrina as the eye came ashore on August 29, 2005. Similar responses of ∼7.2 mHz were detected by the ring laser interferometer for Hurricanes Dean, Wilma, and Rita as they moved over a land mass. The ∼7.2 mHz signals appeared only when the hurricanes were over land or shallow water.

Image of FIG. 6.

Click to view

FIG. 6.

On August 17, 2007, Hurricane Dean passed between the islands of Martinique and St. Lucia in the Caribbean. A microwave image of the eye between the islands from the Metro-France radar on Martinique is shown in image 6(a).18 As shown in image 6(b), approximately 3.5 to 4.0 h later a distinct infrasound response of ∼7.2 mHz was recorded by the large ring interferometer in Central Arkansas. The time delays suggest the 7.2 mHz response was transmitted from the Caribbean as an acoustic rather than seismic signal.

Image of FIG. 7.

Click to view

FIG. 7.

The figure shows a ∼12.5 mHz response from Hurricane Wilma as it was transitioning from a tropical depression into a tropical storm south of Jamaica on October 16, 2005.

Image of FIG. 8.

Click to view

FIG. 8.

The enhanced satellite image 8(a) of Hurricane Wilma was taken on October 21, 2005.21 It shows a distinct double eyewall prior to Hurricane Wilma making landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Also, on October 21, 2005, the ring laser detected two closely spaced infrasound responses as shown in graph 8b. The inner eyewall generated a frequency of ∼8.5 mHz and the outer eyewall generated a frequency of ∼8.1 mHz.

Image of FIG. 9.

Click to view

FIG. 9.

A distinct ∼7.2 mHz response, graph 9(a), was recorded by the ring laser as Hurricane Wilma was about to exit the Yucatan Peninsula into the Gulf of Mexico on October 22, 2005. The corresponding satellite image 9(b) was also taken on October 22, 2005. The satellite image shows that the eye of Hurricane Wilma was on the northeastern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. (NASA Aqua spacecraft, MODIS, http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery//?2005295/wilma).

Image of FIG. 10.

Click to view

FIG. 10.

On October 26, 2005, a response of ∼11.5 mHz was detected as Wilma became extratropical off Nova Scotia. Typically, infrasound frequencies higher than 10 mHz are detected before a distinct eye is formed and after the hurricane becomes extratropical. Apparently, some of the strong frequency peaks below 6.0 mHz are associated with explosive volcanic activity.

Image of FIG. 11.

Click to view

FIG. 11.

The figure was created by Zurn and Widmer,22 using the vertical responses from 42 seismic sites, during the eruption on July 15, 1991, of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippine Islands. Typhoon Yunya came ashore during the climatic stages of the eruption. The appearance of the response at ∼7.3 mHz coincided with Typhoon Yunya moving ashore on the Island of Luzon.

Image of FIG. 12.

Click to view

FIG. 12.

For a little over 5 h Hurricane Katrina produced a 7.3 mHz emission after making its second landfall in Louisiana on August 29, 2005. As shown in Figure 12, the ring laser response is broken into ten blocks of 32 mins each. The amplitude of each block is arbitrary. However, the amplitudes increased for the first 3 h and then began to decrease. An examination of the figure shows the 7.3 mHz emissions varied very little over the five hour period. Since the wind speed of Katrina was rapidly decreasing, the 7.3 mHz frequency appears to be nearly immune to wind speed changes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aip/journal/jap/112/7/10.1063/1.4757037
2012-10-08
2014-04-16

Abstract

Over the last decade, large horizontally mounted ring laserinterferometers have demonstrated the capacity to measure numerous geophysical effects. In this paper, responses from large ring laserinterferometers to low frequency hurricane emissions are presented. Hurricanes create a broad spectrum of noise that extends into the millihertz range. In addition to microseisms, hurricanes with established eyewalls were found to create distinct frequency peaks close to 7 mHz as they came ashore or moved over shallow water. Selected emissions from Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Dean are presented. The exact coupling mechanism between the ∼7 mHz hurricane emissions and the ring lasers remains under active investigation.

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/aip/journal/jap/112/7/1.4757037.html;jsessionid=100edpv6allg7.x-aip-live-01?itemId=/content/aip/journal/jap/112/7/10.1063/1.4757037&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah&containerItemId=content/aip/journal/jap
true
true
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Detection of low frequency hurricane emissions using a ring laser interferometer
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/7/10.1063/1.4757037
10.1063/1.4757037
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM