XRD patterns of (a) PZNT-LN, (b) PZNT-NN, and (c) PZNT-KN.
Bipolar P-E and S-E curves of  oriented (a) PZNT-LN, (b) PZNT-NN, and (c) PZNT-KN single crystals.
Strains vs. polarization curves (S-P curves) of (a) PZNT-LN, (b) PZNT-NN, and (c) PZNT-KN.
Unipolar S-E curves of  oriented PZNT and PZNT-LN single crystals.
Unipolar (a) P-E and (b) S-E curves of  oriented PZNT-LN, PZNT-NN, and PZNT-KN single crystals.
(a) S-E curves and (b) P-E curves of (1-x) PZNT + x NN (x = 0, 0.025, and 0.05).
Optical micrographs of PZNT-LN (a) before applying an E-field and (b) upon applying an E-field of 25 kV/cm along the 〈001〉 direction, and an optical micrograph of PZNT-NN upon applying an E-field of 20 kV/cm along the 〈001〉 direction.
Raman spectra of (a) PZNT, (b) PZNT-0.025NN, and (c) PZNT-0.05NN measured in crossed (XZ) and parallel (ZZ) polarization before applying the E-field.
Depolarization ratios (Ixz/Izz) calculated by peak intensity ratios of Alg modes in XZ and ZZ polarized Raman spectra of PZNT, PZNT-0.025NN, and PZNT-0.05NN.
Results of ICP analysis on the content of alkali elements (Li+, Na+, or K+) in A-site, Nb and Ti in B-site.
The remnant polarization (Pr), saturated polarization (Ps), and coercive field (Ec) of PZNT-RN single crystals along  direction.
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