(a) Energy band diagrams of NPB, Alq3, and DCJTB. The organic layer thickness (cavity length) is fixed at 135 nm and Y = 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm (the thickness of each layer is not to scale) (b) UV-visible absorption spectrum of DCJTB and PL spectra of Alq3 and Alq3 doped DCJTB.
(a) Current density and (b) luminance versus voltage of devices with NPB/Alq3 thickness of 35/60 (Device A), 50/45 (Device B), 65/30 (Device C), and 80/15 (Device D) nm.
The luminous efficiency (cd/A) versus current density of Devices A to D.
Electrical simulation results for change of emission zone position (a) free carrier recombination and direct recombination and (b) total carrier combination rate of Devices A to D.
(a) Refractive indices and (b) absorption coefficients versus wavelength used in our optical simulation. (c) The comparison of refractive indices of 1% DCJTB dropped in Alq3 and prinstine Alq3.
EL intensity and optical power of Devices A to D. All the cases are normalized to the case of Device A (NPB/Alq3 = 35/60 nm).
(a) Experiment and (b) simulation with and (c) without considering electrical effect of Devices A to D for evaluating the relative EL spectra.
Experiment and simulation of Devices A to D for evaluating (a) the relative EL intensity and (b) relative power.
Schematic illustration for E-O tuning region and the best positions of optical interference, charge balance, and recombination emission.
TABLE I. Field-dependent carrier mobility, relative dielectric constants, HOMO and LUMO of organic materials used in this study.
Parameters of Alq3 (host) and DCJTB (dopant) for the calculation of exciton density.
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