Current density—voltage curves of solar cells upon light activation. Time delay between curves is 4 s. (a) Devices with pristine TiOx and (b)devices with TiOx pre-treated at 180 °C.
Evolution of the rising time (t10-90) for Jsc, Voc, FF and PCE as a function of the baking temperature of TiOx layer.
Remaining Activation Rate as the function of the storage time under N2 at room temperature (black squares), air at room temperature (grey circles) and N2 at 80 °C (white triangles).
Evolution of the conductance at a bias voltage of 1 V upon illumination for unbaked TiOx (▪) and TiOx baked at 80 °C (○), 100 °C (Δ), 120 °C (∇), 140 °C ◃), 160 °C (▹) or 180 °C (•). Inset: Architecture of the TiOx devices for the study of the activation phenomenon
Jsc, Voc, FF and PCE (average values and standard deviation) and their respective t10-90 for OSC devices with TiOx unbaked and baked at 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 °C for 10 min.
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