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The addition of strain in uniaxially strained transistors by both SiN contact etch stop layers and recessed SiGe sources and drains
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10.1063/1.4764045
/content/aip/journal/jap/112/9/10.1063/1.4764045
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/9/10.1063/1.4764045

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Lorentz image of dummy gates strained using a compressive SiN CESL. The image was slightly defocused to make the CESL clearer. (b) Dark-field (220) hologram. For indication, the gates have been drawn onto the hologram. (c) strain map reconstructed from the hologram. (d) Strain profiles extracted from the map according to the arrows. (e) Dark-field (004) hologram, (f) strain map, and (g) profiles extracted from the map. The profiles were averaged over 6 nm in the perpendicular direction. The profiles along the channel direction (dashed) were placed at 6 nm below the silicon surface.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Lorentz image of the dummy gates strained using recessed sources and drains. (b) Dark-field (220) hologram and (c) reconstructed strain map. (d) Simulated strain map. (e) Zoom of the strain map in the region indicated by a dotted square in (c). (f) Dark-field (004) hologram, (g) experimental, and (h) simulated strain map. Note that the measurements were performed on the same lamella but not exactly on the same devices for the two directions. (i) Profiles extracted from the strain map according to the arrows drawn in (c). Profiles extracted from the simulation are shown as dotted lines. (j) Profiles extracted from the experimental and simulated strain maps. The profiles were averaged over 6 nm in the perpendicular direction. The profiles along the channel direction (dashed) were placed at 20 nm below the channel surface.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Lorentz image of dummy gates strained using recessed sources and drains and a SiN CESL. (b) Dark-field (220) hologram and (c) reconstructed strain map. (d) Strain profiles extracted from the maps according to the arrows. (e) Zoom of the strain map in the region indicated by a dotted square in (c). (f) Dark-field (004) hologram, (g) strain map, and (h) profiles extracted from the map. The profiles were averaged over 6 nm in the perpendicular direction. The profiles along the channel direction (dashed) were placed at 20 nm below the channel surface. Note that the measurements were performed on the same lamella but not exactly on the same devices for the two directions.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Zoom of the (220) dark-field electron hologram, in the region containing two dislocations, indicated by a dashed square in Fig. 3(e). (b) Zoom of the strain map. (c) High resolution STEM-HAADF image of the same region. (d) strain map reconstructed from (c) by geometrical phase analysis using a (220) spot. In both cases, (b) and (d), a Gaussian mask of radius was used in Fourier space. A Hanning window was first applied on the high resolution image to minimize the artifacts of reconstruction at the boundaries of the image. The image was also cropped after reconstruction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) and (b) Dark-field (220) electron hologram (a) before and (b) after silicidation of the SiGe SD sample without CESL. (c) High resolution TEM image in the region of the germano-silicide layer.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) STEM-HAADF image of the sample strained using recessed SiGe SD and a SiN liner. (b)-(d) Relative atomic concentration profiles of Ni and Ge/Si ratio along the three dashed red arrows drawn in (a). For each graphic, 100 EDS spectra were acquired along the arrow. The relative atomic concentration of the element X is defined .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Lorentz image, (b) strain map, (c) strain map, and (d) strain profiles extracted from the maps for the silicided sample without CESL. (e)-(h) Image, strain maps, and strain profiles for the silicided sample with CESL. (h) For clarity, the profile (dotted) along the z direction is linked to the right y-axis, as indicated by an arrow. The three other profiles are linked to the left y-axis.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Comparison of the strain in the middle of the channel as a function of depth for the different configurations analyzed. Raw profiles measured on (a) non-silicided and (b) silicided devices. Profiles were averaged over 15 nm in the x direction. (c) and (d) Average of the profiles for the five different configurations. In both cases, non-silicided and silicided, the sum of the two individual cases (SiN CESL and SiGe SD) is plotted as a dashed or dotted line.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Summary of the different configurations examined. The X symbol indicates that the corresponding process was used.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/112/9/10.1063/1.4764045
2012-11-06
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The addition of strain in uniaxially strained transistors by both SiN contact etch stop layers and recessed SiGe sources and drains
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/112/9/10.1063/1.4764045
10.1063/1.4764045
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