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Origin of high piezoelectric response in A-site disordered morphotropic phase boundary composition of lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3–0.07BaTiO3
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Long range polar lattice distortions in BaTiO3, (b) polar lattice distortions in Pb(ZrTi)O3, (c) polar lattice distortions in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3. The dotted circles marked represent possible distortion direction of A-site atoms depending on the neighboring atoms.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

High purity single crystal studies. (a) TEM image of thin domains with domain walls planar on (100), the magnified view of these domains is depicted in (b). (c) The herringbone type domains structure composed of thin domains with planar domain walls on (100) and (010) and intersecting on (110) plane. The magnified view of these domains is depicted in (d). (e) SAED with large probe size and (f) electron diffraction with nano beam. The arrows marked in (e) and (f) indicate superlattice reflections. It was noticed that  = 1 and the angle between these vectors was ∼90°, however, the SAED with nano beams shows deviation in the ratio and the angles indicating lowering of symmetry.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Bright field TEM image of various domain variants of NBT-BT single crystals viewed from [001]c zone axis.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

A HR-TEM image showing the presence of a nanometer twinned region in NBT-BT whiskers. The two patterns on the right labeled 1 and 2 are FFT patterns from the corresponding regions of the HR-TEM image marked 1 and 2; the split spots in the yellow circles of the FFT of region 2 indicates twinning of the atomic planes. The inset on the HR-TEM image is a SEM micrograph of NBT-BT whisker.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) A schematic representation of the twin arrangement observed in Fig. 4 , (b) schematic plot of bent lattice planes indicating the various energy contributions [After Salje 43 ]. The lattice on either end of the plot is distorted due to PE-FE phase transition. The spontaneous strain is symbolized by the double arrows. The relevant energy is Landau potential. When the planes are bent additional gradient energy occurs as described by the Ginzburg energy. The single arrow represents bending of the planes.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

High resolution neutron diffraction patterns fitted with space group (a) R3c and (b) Cc. Insets are showing {111} reflection was fitted well R3c space group.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) A simple model showing [001]pc projection of ABO3 type structure. The unit cell is marked as square 1 with broken lines. The displacement of A-site (indicated by solid circle with light blue color) cation depicted by the dotted circle in the unit cell 2, which could lead to lower local symmetry of the system. (b) The simulated SADP using R3c unit cell with [001]pc zone axis.


Generic image for table
Table I.

List of the piezoelectric properties for various variants of lead-free piezoelectric NBT-0.07BT.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Origin of high piezoelectric response in A-site disordered morphotropic phase boundary composition of lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3–0.07BaTiO3