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Switching of morphotropic phase boundary and large strain response in lead-free ternary (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3–(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 system
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The phase diagram of the BNT–BKT–KNN ternary system near the BNT-rich corner. The four points construct the rhombohedral–tetragonal phase boundary. The compositions reported in this paper are located on the shaded part, showing the MPB region.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) XRD profiles at 2θ between 35° and 50° and (b) Raman spectra for y = 0, 0.01, and 0.02 series.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) SEM micrographs of the surface of BNT–0.20BKT ceramics, (b) average grain size and relative density as function of BKT and KNN content.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

P-E hysteresis loops and bipolar strain responses for BNT–BKT–KNN with (a) y = 0 and (b) y = 0.01 series measured at 10 Hz.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Unipolar S (E) curves of BNT–BKT–KNN ceramics with (a) y = 0 and (b) y = 0.01. Three-dimensional plots of (c) strain and (d) d 33 for all compositions.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) P-E hysteresis loops and bipolar strain responses for BNT–BKT–KNN near the MPB, (b) variation of strain and d 33 (inset figure) with the MPB compositions.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Temperature dependence of ε r and tanδ for (a) poled and (b) unpoled BNT-0.20BKT samples, with the measuring frequency from 1 kHz to 1 MHz.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Temperature dependence of ε r, tanδ and j TSDC for poled samples with (a) y = 0 and (b) y = 0.01 series. (c) Three-dimensional plots of the depolarization temperature T d for all compositions (inset shows variation of T d along the MPB location).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Phase diagram of the BNT–BKT–KNN system obtained in this work [d 33* values near the MPB were plotted on the phase diagram], (b) relation between the tolerance factor t and the content of KNN along the MPB line of the system.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Rietveld refinement of a high-resolution XRD pattern of samples with x = 0.20, y = 0.01 showing the observed pattern (□) and the calculated fit (▪). The line below is the difference between the observed and calculated intensities.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

TEM bright field images and corresponding diffraction patterns of samples with x = 0.20, y = 0.01 tilted to (a) [011], (b) [111], and (c) [011] zone axis.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) In situ X-ray diffraction pattern of [(1 − x)BNT-xBKT]-yKNN (x = 0.20, y = 0.01) ceramics at its virgin state in comparison with that at 60 kV/cm. (b) Pseudo-cubic (200) reflection as a function of electric field from the initial zero field state to an applied field of 60 kV/cm, for [(1 − x)BNT-xBKT]-yKNN (x = 0.12, y = 0; x = 0.20, y = 0; x = 0.20, y = 0.01; and x = 0.17, y = 0.02) compositions.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) Raman spectroscopy data for [(1 − x)BNT-xBKT]-yKNN (x = 0.14, y = 0.01) composition with increasing temperature (inset figure shows Raman shift with temperature in the range of 240 to 280 cm−1), (b) P-E hysteresis loops and (c) associated I-V curves for samples at different temperatures, (d) bipolar and (e) unipolar strain curves of the indicated samples at different temperatures.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(a) Temperature dependence of strain and loss tangent for samples with x = 0.12–0.20, y = 0.01, (b) temperature dependence of strain and depolarization current j TSDC for samples with x = 0.12, y = 0–0.04.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(a) P-E hysteresis loops and bipolar strain curves of the indicated samples (x = 0.14, y = 0–0.04) at RT and ∼T d. (b) Three-dimensional plots of for the compositions within the FE phase region at ∼T d.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Switching of morphotropic phase boundary and large strain response in lead-free ternary (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3–(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 system