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Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and society
2. A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).
4. A. Bejan and S. Lorente, “ Constructal theory of generation of configuration in nature and engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 041301 (2006).
5. A. Kremer-Marietti and J. Dhombres, L’Épistemologie (Ellipses, Paris, 2006).
6. Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics, edited by A. Bejan and G. W. Merkx (Springer, New York, 2007).
7. P. Kalason, Le Grimoire des Rois: Théorie Constructale du Changement (L'Harmattan, Paris, 2007).
8. P. Kalason, Épistémologie Constructale du Lien Cultuel (L'Harmattan, Paris, 2007).
9. A. Bejan and S. Lorente, Design With Constructal Theory (Wiley, Hoboken, 2008).
10. Constructal Theory and Multi-Scale Geometries: Theory and Applications in Energetics, Chemical Engineering and Materials, edited by D. Queiros-Conde and M. Feidt (Les Presses de L'ENSTA, Paris, 2009).
11. L. Rocha, Convection in Channels and Porous Media: Analysis, Optimization, and Constructal Design (VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken, 2009).
12. Constructal Human Dynamics, Security and Sustainability, edited by A. Bejan, S. Lorente, A. F. Miguel, and A. H. Reis (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2009).
13. G. Lorenzini, S. Moretti, and A. Conti, Fin Shape Optimization Using Bejan's Constructal Theory (Morgan & Claypool Publishers, San Francisco, 2011).
14. A. Bachta, J. Dhombres, and A. Kremer-Marietti, Trois Ètudes sur la Loi Constructale d'Adrian Bejan (L'Harmattan, Paris, 2008).
15. A. Bejan and J. P. Zane, Design in Nature: How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organization (Doubleday, New York, 2012).
16. N. Acuña, Mindshare: Igniting Creativity and Innovation Through Design Intelligence (Motion, Henderson, NV, 2012).
17. L. A. O. Rocha, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design (Springer, New York, 2012).
18. J. A. Tuhtan, A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality (Institute for Water and Environment-System Modeling, University of Stuttgart, 2012), Vol. 210.
19. A. Bejan, Entropy Generation Through Heat and Fluid Flow (Wiley, New York, 1982).
20. A. Bejan, Entropy Generation Minimization (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1996).
22. A. H. Reis, “ Constructal theory: From engineering to physics, and how flow systems develop shape and structure,” Appl. Mech. Rev. 59, 269–282 (2006).
23. A. Bejan and S. Lorente, “ The constructal law of design and evolution in nature,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 365, 1335–1347 (2010).
25. A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, Hoboken, 2006).
29. A. Bejan, Shape and Structure From Engineering to Nature (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
35. M. Eslami and K. Jafarpur, “ Optimal distribution of imperfection in conductive constructal designs of arbitrary configurations,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 104905 (2012).
37. B. V. K. Reddy, P. V. Ramana, and A. Narasimhan, “ Steady and transient thermo-hydraulic performance of disc with tree-shaped micro-channel networks with and without radial inclination,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 1482–1489 (2008).
38. A. Sciacovelli and V. Verda, “ Entropy generation minimization for the optimal design of the fluid distribution system in a circular MCFC,” Int. J. Thermodyn. 14, 167–177 (2011).
52. H. Ghaedamini, M. R. Salimpour, and A. S. Mujumdar, “ The effect of svelteness on the bifurcation angles role in pressure drop and flow uniformity of tree-shaped microchannels,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 31, 708–716 (2011).
53. A. Bejan, Convection Heat Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1984), Problem 4.11, p. 157.
56. G. Lorenzini, R. L. Corrêa, E. D. dos Santos, and L. A. O. Rocha, “ Constructal design of complex assembly of fins,” J. Heat Transfer 133, 081902 (2011).
60. G. Lorenzini and S. Moretti, “ A Bejan's constructal theory approach to the overall optimization of heat exchanging finned modules with air in forced convection and laminar flow condition,” J. Heat Transfer 131, 081801 (2009).
62. B. Kundu and D. Bhanja, “ Performance and optimization analysis of a constructal T-shaped fin subject to variable thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer coefficient,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 53, 254–267 (2010).
65. G. Lorenzini and S. Moretti, “ Numerical performance analysis of constructal I and Y finned heat exchanging modules,” J. Electron. Packag. 131, 031012 (2009).
74. M. Tye-Gingras and L. Gosselin, “ Thermal resistance minimization of a fin-and-porous-medium heat sink with evolutionary algorithms,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A 54, 349–366 (2008).
82. A. Andreozzi, B. Buonomo, and O. Manca, “ Transient natural convection in vertical channels symmetrically heated at uniform heat flux,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A 55, 409–431 (2009).
85. A. P. Sasmito, J. C. Kurnia, and A. S. Mujumdar, “ Numerical evaluation of various gas and coolant channel designs for high performance liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks,” Energy 44, 278–291 (2012).
86. B. Ramos-Alvarado, A. Hernandez-Guerrero, F. Elizalde-Blancas, and M. W. Ellis, “ Constructal flow distributor as a bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane fuel cells,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 356, 12965–12976 (2011).
88. M. Mehrgoo and M. Amidpour, “ Derivation of optimal geometry of a multi-effect humidification-dehumidification desalination unit: A constructal design,” Desalination 281, 234–242 (2011).
94. A. V. Azad and M. Amidpour, “ Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger based on constructal theory,” Fuel Energy Abstr. 36, 1087–1096 (2011).
96. S. B. Zhou, L. G. Chen, and F. R. Sun, “ Constructal optimization for a solid-gas reactor based on triangular element,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 51, 1554–1562 (2008).
97. J.-F. Cornet, “ Calculation of optimal design and ideal productivities of volumetrically lightened photobioreactors using the constructal approach,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65, 985–998 (2010).
99. A. R. Kacimov, H. Klammler, N. Il'yinskii, and K. Hatfield, “ Constructal design of permeable reactive barriers: Groundwater-hydraulics criteria,” J. Eng. Math. 71, 319–338 (2011).
102. J. Yue, R. Boichot, L. Luo, Y. Gonthier, G. Chen, and Q. Yuan, “ Flow distribution and mass transfer in a parallel microchannel contactor integrated with constructal distributors,” AIChE J. 56, 298–317 (2010).
105. X. Daguenet-Frick, J. Bonjour, and R. Revellin, “ Constructal microchannel network for flow boiling in a disc-shaped body,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 115–126 (2010).
107. W. X. Liu, W. X. Tian, Y. W. Wu, G. H. Su, S. Z. Qiu, X. Yan, Y. P. Huang, and D. X. Du, “ An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model and its application to motion conditions,” Prog. Nucl. Energy 61, 88–101 (2012).
108. Y. Kim, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Steam generator structure: Continuous model and constructal design,” Int. J. Energy Res. 35, 336–345 (2011).
110. Y. S. Kim, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Distribution of size in steam turbine power plants,” Int. J. Energy Res. 33, 989–998 (2009).
112. D.-H. Kang, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Constructal dendritic configuration for the radiation heating of a solid stream,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 114910 (2010).
118. A. Bejan, S. Lorente, and K.-M. Wang, “ Networks of channels for self-healing composite materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 033528 (2006).
120. S. Kim, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Vascularized materials: Tree-shaped flow architectures matched canopy to canopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063525 (2006).
121. J. Lee, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Vascular design for thermal management of heated structures,” Aeronaut. J. 113, 397–407 (2009).
123. S. Kim, S. Lorente, A. Bejan, W. Miller, and J. Morse, “ The emergence of vascular design in three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123511 (2008).
124. E. Cetkin, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Natural constructal emergence of vascular design with turbulent flow,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 114901 (2010).
125. A. M. Aragón, R. Saksena, B. D. Kozola, P. H. Geubelle, K. T. Christiansen, and S. R. White, “ Multi-physics optimization of three-dimensional microvascular polymeric components,” J. Comput. Phys. 233, 132 (2013).
129. W. Wechsatol, J. C. Ordonez, and S. Kosaraju, “ Constructal dendritic geometry and the existence of asymmetric bifurcation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113514 (2006).
130. M. S. Sayeed, I. A. Ahmed, A. A. Syed, P. H. Raju, and M. S. Salman, “ Experimental study of tree networks for minimal pumping power,” Int. J. Des. Nat. Ecodyn. 3, 135–149 (2008).
131. R. Godde and H. Kurz, “ Structural and biophysical simulation of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling,” Dev. Dyn. 220, 387–401 (2001).
135. A. M. Aragón, J. K. Wayer, P. H. Geubelle, D. E. Goldberg, and S. R. White, “ Design of microvascular flow networks using multi-objective genetic algorithms,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 197, 4399–4410 (2008).
139. T. Bello-Ochende, J. P. Meyer, and F. U. Ighalo, “ Combined numerical optimization and constructal theory for the design of microchannel heat sinks,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A 58, 882–899 (2010).
140. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Shi, and Y. Yang, “ Thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of constructal tree-shaped minichannel heat sink,” AIChE J. 56, 2018–2029 (2009).
144. D. Haller, P. Woias, and N. Kockmann, “ Simulation and experimental investigation of pressure loss and heat transfer in microchannel networks containing bends and T-junctions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52, 2678–2689 (2009).
146. X. Zeng, W. Dai, and A. Bejan, “ Vascular countercurrent network for 3-D triple-layered skin structure with radiation heating,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A 57, 369–391 (2010).
147. X. Tang, W. Dai, R. Nassar, and A. Bejan, “ Optimal temperature distribution in a three-dimensional triple-layered skin structure embedded with artery and vein vasculature,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A 50, 809–834 (2006).
150. E. Cetkin, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Vascularization for cooling a plate heated by a randomly moving source,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 084906 (2012).
155. E. Cetkin, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Hybrid grid and tree structures for cooling and mechanical strength,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064910 (2011).
157. K. Schmidt-Nielsen, Scaling: Why Is Animal Size So Important (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1984).
158. E. R. Weibel, Symmorphosis: On Form and Function in Shaping Life (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000).
159. S. Vogel, Life's Devices (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1988).
160. E. R. Weibel, C. R. Taylor, and L. Bolis, Principles of Animal Design. The Optimization and Symmorphosis Debate (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998).
161. H. Hoppeler and E. R. Weibel, “ Scaling functions to body size: Theories and facts, special issue,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1573–1769 (2005).
163. A. Bejan, “ The constructal law of organization in nature: Tree-shaped flows and body size,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1677–1686 (2005).
164. A. Bejan and J. H. Marden, “ Unifying constructal theory for scale effects in running, swimming and flying,” J. Exp. Biol. 209, 238–248 (2006).
166. D. L. Altshuler, R. Dudley, S. M. Heredia, and J. A. McGuire, “ Allometry of hummingbird lifting performance,” J. Exp. Biol. 213(5 ), 725–734 (2010).
168. K. Sato, Y. Watanuki, A. Takahashi, P. J. Miller, H. Tanaka, R. Kawabe, P. J. Ponganis, Y. Handrich, T. Akamatsu, Y. Watanabe, Y. Mitani, D. P. Costa, C. A. Bost, K. Aoki, M. Amano, P. Trathan, A. Shapiro, and Y. Naito, “ Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 274, 471–477 (2007).
172. A. Bejan, E. C. Jones, and J. D. Charles, “ The evolution of speed in athletics: Why the fastest runners are black and swimmers white,” Int. J. Des. Nat. Ecodyn. 5(3 ), 199–211 (2010).
173. S. Lorente, E. Cetkin, T. Bello-Ochende, J. P. Meyer, and A. Bejan, “ The constructal-law physics of why swimmers must spread their fingers and toes,” J. Theor. Biol. 308, 141–146 (2012).
176. G. Resconi, “ Morphotronics and constructal theory, LINDI 2011,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Logistics and Industrial Informatics, Budapest, Hungary, 25–27 August 2011.
185. A. Bejan, S. Lorente, A. F. Miguel, and A. H. Reis, “ Constructal theory of distribution of river sizes,” in Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd ed., edited by A. Bejan (Wiley, Hoboken, 2006), Sec. 13.5.
187. H.-H. Liu, “ A conductivity relationship for steady-state unsaturated flow processes under optimal flow conditions,” Vadose Zone J. 10, 736 (2011).
190. A. G. Konings, X. Feng, A. Molini, S. Manzoni, G. Vico, and A. Porporato, “ Thermodynamics of an idealized hydrologic cycle,” Water Resour. Res. 48, W05527 (2010).
194. A. W. Kosner, “ Big data not required: The benefits of a less complex model of climate change,” Forbes, 12 October 2012.
197. A. W. Kosner, “ There's a new law in physics and it changes everything,” Forbes, 29 February 2012.
198. A. W. Kosner, “ ‘Freedom is good for design,’ How to use Constructal Theory to liberate any flow system,” Forbes, 18 March 2012.
201. S. Lorente and A. Bejan, “ Global distributed energy systems,” in Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards II, edited by C. A. Brebbia, N. Jovanovic, and E. Tiezzi (WIT Press, Southampton, 2010), pp. 251–269.
202. A. M. Morega, J. C. Ordonez, and M. Morega, “ A constructal approach to power distribution networks design,” in International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality, Santander, 12-14 March (2008), pp. 441–442.
203. L. Xia, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Constructal design of distributed cooling on the landscape,” Int. J. Energy Res. 35, 805–812 (2011).
204. L. A. O. Rocha, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Distributed energy tapestry for heating the landscape,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 124904 (2010).
210. C. Viniegra, “ The digital governance challenge: The role of government in the digital age,” in Business Technologies Strategies Executive Update (2012), Vol. 15, No. 14.
213. L. Combelles, S. Lorente, R. Anderson, and A. Bejan, “ Tree-shaped fluid flow and heat storage in a conducting solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 014902 (2012).
214. H. Kobayashi, S. Lorente, R. Anderson, and A. Bejan, “ Serpentine thermal coupling between a stream and a conducting body,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 044911 (2012).
215. E. Cetkin, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ The steepest S curve of spreading and collecting: Discovering the invading tree, not assuming it,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114903 (2012).
218. C. H. Lui, N. K. Fong, S. Lorente, A. Bejan, and W. K. Chow, “ Constructal design for pedestrian movement in living spaces: Evacuation configurations,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054903 (2012).
219. L. C. Kelley and K. Behan, “ Empathy & evolution: How dogs convert stress into flow,” Psychology Today, 6 August 2012.
220. L. C. Kelley and K. Behan, “ The canine mind bows to the Constructal law,” Psychology Today, 16 October 2012.
222. M. Birla, FedEx Delivers: How the World's Leading Shipping Company Keeps Innovating and Outperforming the Competition (Wiley, Hoboken, 2005).
223. G. R. McGhee, Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful (The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2011).
224. J. Burstein, Spark: How Creativity Works (Harper, New York, 2011).
225. V. W. Hwang and G. Horowitt, The Rainforest: The Secret to Building the Next Silicon Valley (Regenwald, Los Altos Hills, CA, 2012).
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This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time. The progress made with the Constructal law covers the broadest range of science, from heat and fluid flow and geophysics, to animal design, technology evolution, and social organization (economics, government). This review presents the state of this fast growing field, and draws attention to newly opened directions for original research. The Constructal law places the concepts of life, design, and evolution in physics.
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