Absorbance spectra of the Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ doped GeO2-PbO glasses containing silver nanoparticles heat-treated during different time intervals (12, 24, and 48 h); the spectrum for the sample without silver NPs is shown as reference. (a) 400–900 nm and (b) 900–1700 nm. Samples' thickness: 2 mm.
Emission spectra of Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ doped GeO2-PbO samples containing silver NPs. The spectrum of the sample without silver NPs is shown as reference. Excitation wavelength: 980 nm.
Energy levels diagram of Tm3+, Er3+, and Yb3+ ions. Solid arrows represent radiative transitions; dotted arrows indicate energy transfer Yb3+ → Tm3+ and Yb3+ → Er3+; dashed arrows indicate nonradiative transitions. ET refers to energy transfer and CR means cross-relaxation.
Dependence of the upconversion intensity with the laser power.
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