Initial configuration of the simulated sample. The loading process is generated by impacting target (105 a) with a flyer (15 a).
Formation process of the loading profile (particle velocity vz ) (a), and pressure profiles pz with different impacting velocities near the right-side surface.
Microscopic morphology evolution of failure at the impact velocity 1.5 km/s. Typical states of spall damage, including voids nucleation, growth, and confluence, are all presented.
Evolution of longitudinal pressure profile (a) and evolution of temperature profile (b) at the impact velocity 1.5 km/s. The dotted horizontal line is the melting point at zero pressure from the potential model 28 used in our work.
Microscopic morphology evolution of failure at the impact velocity 5.0 km/s. The atoms are colored by their potential energy.
Evolution of longitudinal pressure profile (a) and evolution of temperature profile (b) at the impact velocity 5.0 km/s.
3D graph of failure before melting, for the cases of impact velocities from 1.0 to 2.0 km/s. The solid spall layers are presented.
3D graph of failure after melting, for the impact velocities from 3.5 to 6.0 km/s. Atom or cluster ejecta, melted spall layer, and fragment ejecta are all presented.
Variation of the failure depth with the impact velocity. Before melting, the failure depth increases linearly with the impact velocity; after melting, the increase of failure depth deflects this linear law.
(a) Evolution of free-surface velocity with time for different impacting velocities and (b) variation of fracture strength and strain rate from the free-surface velocity history within acoustic approximation.
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