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Multiferroicity in spin ice Ho2Ti2O7: An investigation on single crystals
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Optical photos of the HTO single crystals grown by (a) the flux method and (b) the floating-zone method. (c) Measured XRD pattern of the powder HTO grinded from single crystals.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Measured curves at various warming scan rates (2, 4, and 6 K/min) (a) and (d), measured curves under positive and negative electric fields ( = ± 10 kV/cm) (b) and (e), measured curves at three frequencies as labeled (c) and (f). The left column is for the (110)-oriented sample and the right column for the (111)-oriented sample. (g) Measured ratio / as a function of at  = 0. (h) A schematic drawing of a lattice cell and . is the projected polarization along the ⟨110⟩ direction.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Measured curves under various as labeled for the (110)-oriented sample. (b) Measured , , and at  = 2 K as a function of , respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Possible four spin cells: (a) the 4-in cell, (b) 2-in/2-out cell, (c) 3-in/1-out cell, and (d) 3-out/1-in cell. The red arrows denote the spins, the red or blue solid circle in the tetrahedron center represents the magnetic charge, and the green arrow shows the electric dipole. (e) A 3-in/1-out cell in pair with a 3-out/1-in cell, under a nonzero along the ⟨111⟩ direction. (f) Transfer of a 3-out/1-in cell into a 2-in/2-out cell upon a spin flip driven by along the ⟨110⟩ direction, leading to disappearance of one electric dipole.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Multiferroicity in spin ice Ho2Ti2O7: An investigation on single crystals