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Optical photos of the HTO single crystals grown by (a) the flux method and (b) the floating-zone method. (c) Measured XRD pattern of the powder HTO grinded from single crystals.
Measured I-T curves at various warming scan rates (2, 4, and 6 K/min) (a) and (d), measured P-T curves under positive and negative electric fields (E = ± 10 kV/cm) (b) and (e), measured ε-T curves at three frequencies as labeled (c) and (f). The left column is for the (110)-oriented sample and the right column for the (111)-oriented sample. (g) Measured ratio P 110/P 111 as a function of T at H = 0. (h) A schematic drawing of a lattice cell and P 111. P 110 is the projected polarization along the ⟨110⟩ direction.
(a) Measured P-T curves under various H as labeled for the (110)-oriented sample. (b) Measured P 111, P 110, and M 111 at T = 2 K as a function of H, respectively.
Possible four spin cells: (a) the 4-in cell, (b) 2-in/2-out cell, (c) 3-in/1-out cell, and (d) 3-out/1-in cell. The red arrows denote the spins, the red or blue solid circle in the tetrahedron center represents the magnetic charge, and the green arrow shows the electric dipole. (e) A 3-in/1-out cell in pair with a 3-out/1-in cell, under a nonzero H along the ⟨111⟩ direction. (f) Transfer of a 3-out/1-in cell into a 2-in/2-out cell upon a spin flip driven by H along the ⟨110⟩ direction, leading to disappearance of one electric dipole.
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